Masters in Water Resource Engineering

ADVANCED FLUID MECHANICS

Course Objective:
Introduction to concepts of fluid mechanics from both theoretical and applications perspective to the students. The students
will have sufficient mathematical and physical background to formulate real life problems in fluid mechanics.
Course Content:
Fundamental concepts and scope. Kinematics of fluid motion. Continuity equation, rotational and irrotational motion,
circulation, vorticity, velocity potential and stream function, Methods of solving Laplace’s equation. Dynamics of ideal fluids,
Euler’s equation of motion and their integration. Viscous Laminar flow, derivation of Navier-stokes equations and their
solutions for simple problems. Instability of Laminar flow. Theory of boundary layer, boundary layer approximations,
Separation, Turbulent flow. Prandtl’s mixing length theory, Von Karman similarity hypothesis. Turbulent flow in smooth and
rough pipes, velocity equation, Resistance of smooth and artificially roughened pipes. Flow around submerged objects.
Types of drag; drag at high velocities, circulation and circulation theory of lift. Compressible flow. Hydraulic models and
model techniques. Open channel flow and its classification: Description and types. Energy and momentum equation for
prismatic and non-prismatic open channel sections. Critical flow, its computation and application, and depth in channels.
Uniform flow : Its computation and application, other uniform flow formulae, conveyance of a channel section, section factor
and hydraulic exponent. Gradually varied flow:Basic assumptions, dynamic equation of gradually varied flow, flow profiles,
method of singular point and transitional depth. Computation, analytical and graphical methods. Channel transitions in subcritical
and super-critical flow. Spatially varied flow : Basic principles and assumption, dynamic equation for spatially varied
flow, analysis of flow profile, methods of numerical integration and the isoclinal method. Rapidly varied flow: Characteristics
of the flow, hydraulic jump and jump as an energy dissipater. Flow in channels of non-linear alignment. Discharge
measurement techniques in open channels.
Ordinary and partial differential equations; finite difference schemes – implicit and explicit types; method of characteristics;
applications with computer programming.
Course Outcome:
The students will be able to get basic knowledge of the applicability of physical laws and it’s problems in hydraulics. They will
gain the skills to take up research activities involving fluid motions.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Maximum 4 numbers of text book/reference books with their complete details (Single Line Spacing with justified)
  2. G.K. Bachelor: An introduction to fluid mechanics(Cambridge Univ. Press)
  3. Hunder Rose: Advanced mechanics of fluids, 1959-Editor
  4. J. O. HIntze: Turbulence (McGraw Hill – 1959)
  5. J.L. Lunley: A first course in Turbulence 1972 H. Tennet

NUMERICAL METHODS

Course Objective:
This course attempts to give a broad background of numerical methods common to various branches. The course covers
solution of initial and boundary value problem for ordinary and partial differential equation using different methods. In
addition, response surface methodology is discussed to establish relationship between input and output variables and the
adequacy of model is tested by various techniques
Course Content:
Initial Value Problems for Ordinary Differential Equations
Single step methods: Taylor series method Euler and modified Euler methods Fourth order Runge-Kutta method for solving
first and second order equations Multistep methods: Milne’s and Adam’s predictor and corrector methods.
Boundary Value Problems in Ordinary And Partial Differential Equations
Finite difference solution of second order, ordinary differential equation, Finite difference solution of one dimensional heat
equation by explicit and implicit methods, One dimensional wave equation and two dimensional Laplace and Poisson
equations.
Response Surface Method (RSM)
Approximating Response Functions, the Sequential Nature of RSM, Objectives and Typical Applications of RSM, RSM and
the Philosophy of Quality Improvement, Product Design and Formulation (Mixture Problems), Robust Design and Process
Robustness Studies
Statistical Models
Linear regression models, least square estimators, hypothesis testing in multiple regression, test on individual regression
coefficient and group of coefficient, confidance intervals in multiple regression. Prediction of New Response Observations,
Model Adequacy Checking, Residual Analysis, Scaling Residuals, Influence Diagnostics, Testing for Lack of Fit, Fitting a
Second-Order Model.
Course Outcome:
At the end of this course students will be able to solve initial and boundary value problem and using response surface
method they can develop linear and non-linear relationship between different inputs and output.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Gerald, C.F, and Wheatley, P.O, “Applied Numerical Analysis”, Sixth Edition, Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi, 2002.
  2. Balagurusamy, E., “Numerical Methods”, Tata McGraw-Hill Pub.Co.Ltd, New Delhi, 1999.
  3. Burden, R.L and Faires, T.D., “Numerical Analysis”, Seventh Edition, Thomson Asia Pvt. Ltd., Singapore, 2002.
  4. Myers, R.H., Montgomery, D.C., 2002. Response Surface Methodology, Process andProduct Optimization using
    Designed Experiments. Second ed.. Wiley.

REMOTE SENSING & GIS APPLICATIONS IN WATER RESOURCES

Course Objective:
To teach the principles and applications of remote sensing, GPS and GIS in the context of water resources and the
importance of remote sensing and GIS in solving the spatial problems in water resources.
Course Content:
Physics of remote sensing, electromagnetic radiation (EMR), Interaction of EMR with atmosphere, earth surface, soil, water
and vegetation; Remote sensing platforms – Monitoring atmosphere, land and water resources – LANDSAT, SPOT, ERS,
IKONOS and others, Indian Space Programme.
Satellite Data analysis – Visual interpretation – Digital image processing – Image preprocessing – Image enhancement –
Image classification – Data Merging.
Definition – Basic components of GIS – Map projections and co-ordinate system – Spatial data structure: raster, vector –
Spatial Relationship – Topology – Geo-database models: hierarchical, network, relational, object oriented models –
Integrated GIS database -common sources of error – Data quality: Macro, Micro and Usage level components – Meta data –
Spatial data transfer standards.
Thematic mapping – Measurement in GIS: length, perimeter and areas – Query analysis – Reclassification – Buffering –
Neighborhood functions – Map overlay: vector and raster overlay – Interpolation – Network analysis –Digital elevation
modelling. Analytical Hierarchy Process, – Object oriented GIS – AM/FM/GIS – Web Based GIS
Spatial data sources – 4M GIS approach water resources system – Thematic maps – Rainfall-runoff modelling – Groundwater
modeling – Water quality modeling – Flood inundation mapping and Modelling – Drought monitoring – Cropping pattern
change analysis –Performance evaluation of irrigation commands. Site selection for artificial recharge – Reservoir
sedimentation.
Course Outcome:
Introduce the technology and principles of Satellite Imaging. Theoretical explanations on Image processing and information
extraction from Satellite Data Products. Functional elucidation of GIS integrating Satellite Data Products into the GIS platform
for Decision making. Potential of remote sensing and GIS is solving problems in water resources through case studies.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Lillesand, T.M. and Kiefer, R.W., Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation III Edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
    1993.
  2. Burrough P.A. and McDonnell R.A., Principles of Geographical Information Systems,.Oxford University Press. New
    York. 1998.
  3. Ian Heywood Sarah, Cornelius and Steve Carver An Introduction to Geographical Information Systems. Pearson
    Education. New Delhi, 2002.

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS & DESIGN

Course Objective:
Introduce the concepts of system approach to hydrological modeling. Analysis of Hydrologic time series and stochastic
hydrologic models. Study types and classes of hydrologic simulation models. Design procedures used for safe and effective
passage of flood flows and discuss the design methods.
Course Content:
Hydrologic System and Statistical Analysis: Hydrologic cycle – System concept – Hydrologic system Model –
Classification of Hydrologic Models – Statistical, Stochastic and Deterministic Approaches – Statistical characteristics of
Hydrological Data – Probability distribution of Hydrologic Variables – Correlation Analysis – Developing Prediction Equation
by Simple and Multiple Linear Regression – Reliability of the Model
Hydrologic Time Series Analysis:Stochastic Process – Classification – Stationary Process – Time series – Classification –
Component of Time series – Method of Investigation – Auto Correlation coefficient – Moving Average Process – Auto
Regressive Process – Auto Regressive Moving Average Process – Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average Process –
Thomas Fiering Model – Box Jenkins Model – Model formulation – Parameter Estimation – Calibration and Validation –
Application to hydrologic data Generation and Forecasting.
Deterministic Hydrologic Simulation:Classification of Deterministic Model – Black Box, Conceptual and Physically based
Models – Rational method – Models of IUH, Nash and Chow-Kulandaiswamy Models – Lumped and Distributed Conceptual
Models – Single event and Continuous Conceptual Models – Physically based Models – Model Calibration and Validation.
Design Storm and its Synthesis: Hydrologic Design Scale – Estimating Limiting Value – Hydrologic Design level –
Hydrologic Design Data – Hydraulic structure Design methods – Estimation of PMP – Computation of Design Storm – IDF
Relationships – Design Flows – Hydrologic Risk, Reliability and Safety Factor.
Hydrologic Design: Hydrologic Design Standard and Criteria – Design storms for Minor and Major hydraulics structures.
Course Outcome:
Students will be able to develop prediction equation between hydrologic variables using simple and multiple linear
regression. Students will be able to apply the time series models in hydrologic data generation and forecasting and learn the
different types and procedure for calibration and validation of deterministic simulation models.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. V. T. Chow, David Maidment, and Larry Mays, “Applied Hydrology”, McGraw Hill Publications, New York, 1995.
  2. Singh, V. P. “Hydrologic Systems”, Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1989.
  3. Jayarami Reddy P., “Stochastic Hydrology”, Laxmi Publications, New Delhi 1995.
  4. Viessman W Jr and Lewis.G.L.,” Introduction to Hydrology (5th ed)” Pearson Education, Inc. 2008.
  5. Haan C.T., “Statistical Methods in Hydrology” Iowa State Press 2002.

WATER MANAGEMENT

Course Objective:
To learn how to analyze and comprehend basic principle of water resources and its planning and management.
Course Content:
Assessment of Surface and Sub-surface water resources: Hydrologic cycle, ground water resources, surface water
resources, water balance, water scarcity.
Water Resources Planning: Planning Concepts and Definitions, Aim of Water Resources Planning, Levels of Water
Resources Planning, Measurement of Objectives, Function and Role of Water Resources, Risk and Uncertainty, Phases of
Water Resources Planning, Data Requirements for Water Resources Planning.
Water Resources Management: Functions of Water Resources Management, Water Scarcity and its impacts, Water
Shortages vs. Water Resources Mmanagement, Water Resources Managementt methods. Water management policy during
droughts. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), Definition of IWRM, IWRM Principles.
Irrigation Water Management: Irrigation water requirement, Different types of irrigation practices, components of irrigation
system, irrigation scheduling, Development of command area, prediction of effect of water shortage on agriculture crops.
Urban Water Resources Management: Urban hydrologic cycle, major problems, storm water management objectives and
limitations; Urban water resources management models; urban storm water management practices; Rain water harvesting.
Course Outcome:
Studentswill be able to start developing master and strategic water resources planningto deal with water Supply/Demand
issues including water demand management, reservoir storage and other structural and non-structural methods and also
able to know how to implement IWRM in different regions including irrigation water management.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. D.Whittington and G.Guariso: water management models in practice
  2. Hengeveld, H. and C. De Voch.t (Ed)., Role of Water in Urban Ecology, 1982.
  3. Martin, P. Wanelista and Yousef, A. Yousef., Storm Water Management, John Wiley and sons, 1993.
  4. Neil S. Grigg., Urban Water Infrastructure Planning, Management and Operations, John Wiley and Sons, 1986.
  5. Overtens D.E. and Meadows M.E., Storm Water Modelling, Academic Press, New York, 1976.

SOFT COMPUTING & SIMULATION IN WATER RESOURCES

Course Objective:
To develop skills of the students in software usage for simulation and water resources management.
To enable the students to understand application of the latest information technology to water resources engineering.
Course Content:
Computing Techniques:Computer methods in water resources – Algorithms and Flowcharts- Computing techniques –
Solution to ordinary and partial differential equation using Finite difference and Method of Characteristic- Numerical
integration and differentiation Design of digital models – Visual programming – Graphical user interface – Real computing –
Interactive model concepts.
Artificial Intelligence: Heuristic search – Knowledge based Expert system concepts – Architecture and applications in Water
Resources Management – Expert system shells – Principle of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) – Application of ANN Model to
Hydrology and Crop Water Requirement model. Fuzzy Logic concepts and Applications – Genetic Algorithms
Digital Data Management:Data base structure – Data acquisition – Data warehouse – Data retrieval-Data format Attribute –
RDBMS – Data analysis – Network data sharing – Statistical Analysis (SYSTAT) – Regression – factor analysis – histogram –
scatter diagram – Goodness of fit.
Simulation Software In Water Resources:Surface water models (HMS) – Storm Water Management Models (SWMM) –
Water CAD, STORM CAD – Ground Water Flow models – Visual Modflow.
Simulation Models In Irrigation Water Management: Soil moisture simulation models – Basin simulation models, Real
time operation models – Water Resources Information System, Management Information System.
Course Outcome:
Students will be able to enhance the computational knowledge in the field of water resources systems and develop the ability
to generate simulation models and use the latest intelligent technology and algorithms.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Aliev R. Aand Aliev Rashad Soft Computing and its Applications World Scientific Publications Co. Pvt. Ltd. Singapore,
    2001.
  2. Vijay P Singh, Hydrologic Systems: Rainfall Runoff Modeling, Prentice Hall, 1988.
  3. John E. Gribbin, Introduction to hydraulics and hydrology with applications for Storm water Management. DELMAR,
    Thomson Learning, USA,2002.
  4. Remson I, Hornberger G.M. and Moiz F.J., Numerical methods in Sub- Surface Hydrology. Wiley Inter Science, 1985
  5. Loucks Daniel P., Jery R Stedinger and Douglas, A. Haith, Water Resources Systems Planning and Analysis. Prentice
    Hall Inc., Englewood Clifts, New Jersey, 1981.

RESERVOIR PLANNING & OPERATIONS

Course Objective:
To develop skills of the students in software usage for simulation and water resources management.
To enable the students to understand application of the latest information technology to water resources engineering.
Course Content:
Introduction:
Concept of Reservoir system-Various methodologies to planning the reservoir: Simulation-Single Objective reservoir
planning-Multi objective reservoir planning-Economic Considerations in Water Resources Planning.
Reservoir systems-Deterministic Inflows:
Reservoir sizing; Reservoir capacity using Linear Programming-Reservoir operations-standard operating policies- Optimal
operating policies; multi-reservoir systems policies.
Reservoir systems-Random inflow:
Basic Probability theory-Chance Constrained Linear Programming; Concept of Reliability; Stochastic Dynamic Programming.
Recent Modeling Tools:
Artificial Neural networks, Fuzzy inference Systems; Fuzzy Linear Programming, Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm
Optimization.
Model formulation and Case studies:
Applications-Reservoir systems operated for irrigation, Hydropower, Flood Control and Municipal and Industrial Supplies;
Water Quality Control in River Systems; Conjunctive use of ground and surface water; Crop yield optimization.
Course Outcome:
Students will be able to enhance the computational knowledge in the field of water resources systems and develop the abilty
to generate simulation models and use the latest intelligent technology and algorithms.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Loucks, D.P.and Ellco Van Beek (2005) Water Resources Systems Planning and Management: An introduction to
    Methods, Models and Applications , UNESCO, Netherlands.
  2. Vedula, S.and Mujumdar,p.p.(2005) Water Resources Systems: Modeling Techniques and Analysis; Tata McGraw Hill,
    New Delhi.
  3. Simonovic,S.P.(2009) Managing Water Resources: Methods and Tools for a System Approach, UNESCO Publishing,
    France.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER RESOURCES

Course Objective:
Understanding the climate system, being aware of the impact of climate change on society, Understanding of adaptation in
relation to water and climate change, Understanding possible impacts, adaptations and remedies in relation to water
resources and climate change.
Course Content:
Climate System:
Definitions- Climate, Climate system, climate change – Drivers of Climate change – Characteristics of climate system
components – Greenhouse effect – Carbon cycle – Wind systems – Trade Winds and the Hadley Cell – Ozone hole in the
stratosphere – El Nino, La Nina.
Impacts of Climate Change:
Precipitation (including extremes) – water vapor – Snow and land ice – Sea level – Evapotranspiration – Soil moisture – Runoff
and river discharge – Patterns of large-scale variability – Influences of hydrological changes on climate – Land surface effects

  • Projected changes in climate.
    Impacts and Responses:
    Observed climate change impacts – effects due to changes in the cryosphere – Future changes in water availability and
    demand due to climate change – Climate-related drivers of freshwater systems in the future – Impacts of climate change on
    water stress in the future – Impacts of climate change on costs and other socio-economic aspects of freshwater – Freshwater
    areas and sectors highly vulnerable to climate change – Uncertainties in the projected impacts of climate change on
    freshwater systems.
    Climate Change Adaptation:
    Water-related adaptation to climate change in the fields of Ecosystems and biodiversity, – Agriculture and food security, land
    use and forestry, Human health, water supply and sanitation, infrastructure and Economy (insurance, tourism, industry and
    transportation) – Adaptation, vulnerability and sustainable development
    Climate Change Mitigation Measures:
    Sector-specific mitigation – Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) , Bio-energy crops, Biomass electricity, Hydropower,
    Geothermal energy, Energy use in buildings, Land-use change and management, Cropland management, Afforestation and
    Reforestation, – Effects of water management policies and measures on GHG emissions and mitigation – Potential water
    resource conflicts between adaptation and mitigation – Implications for policy and sustainable development.
    Course Outcome:
    Students will be oriented towards the global climate change and its impact on water resources and understand the climate
    change phenomenon and its related issues on water, irrigation and its social implications.
    Text Book/Reference Book:
  1. Jan C. Van Dam, Impacts of Climate Change and Climate Variability on Hydrological Regimes, Cambridge University
    Press, 2003.
  2. Bates, B.C., Z.W. Kundzewicz, S. Wu and J.P. Palutikof, Eds., ‘Climate Change and Water’. Technical Paper of the
    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, 2008.
  3. IPCC Report Technical Paper VI – Climate change and water , 2008.
  4. P R Shukla, Subobh K Sarma, NH Ravindranath, Amit Garg and Sumana Bhattacharya, Climate Change and India:
    Vulnerability assessment and adaptation, University Press (India) Pvt Ltd, Hyderabad.

SURFACE WATER HDROLOGY

Course Objective:
This subject aims at making the students to understand the relevance of various components of hydrologic cycle, which are
responsible for spatial and temporal distribution of water availability in any region.
Course Content:
Hydrometeorology:
Hydrologic cycle – Global water budget – Practical applications – Hydrometeorology – Constituents of atmosphere – Vertical
structure of the atmosphere – general circulation – Transitory system – Air mass – Air front – cyclones – Formation of
precipitation – Types and forms of precipitation – Climate and Weather – Meteorological Observations.
Precipitation: Measurement of rainfall – Rain gauges – Radar Measurement of rainfall – Rainfall Hyetograph – Intensity
Duration and Frequency analysis – Consistency – Missing data – Rain gauge network – Average depth of rainfall analysis –
Spatial analysis using GIS
Abstractions: Water losses – Initial losses – Interception and depression storage – Evaporation – Evaporimeters –
Estimation of Evaporation – Evapotranspiration – Field Measurement – Empirical Equations – Infiltration – Infiltrometers –
Infiltration Equations – Infiltration Indices.
Streamflow Measurement:
Stage and Velocity Measurement – Gauges – Current meter and Doppler flow velocity meter – Discharge measurement –
Area Velocity method – Area Slope method – Discharge Measuring Structures – Dilution Technique – Stage Discharge
relationship – Selection of a Stream Gauging Site. .
Runoff and Water Conservation:
Concept of catchment – Linear, Areal and Relief Aspects – Detailed study of Runoff process – Factors affecting Runoff –
Hydrograph – Unit Hydrograph – Synthetic Hydrograph –Runoff estimation – Strange and SCS methods – Water
Conservation – Rain water and Runoff Harvesting in Rural and Urban Areas – Reservoir Sedimentation.
Course Outcome:
The students obtain the complete knowledge on hydrologic cycle, hydrometeorology and formation of precipitation. The
students are able to apply the various methods of field measurements and empirical formulas for estimating the various
losses of precipitation, stream flow and runoff. The students know the various methods of rainwater and runoff harvesting.
Then apply the knowledge of soil erosion and sedimentation to estimate the life of the reservoir.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Chow V.T., Maidment D.R., Mays L.W., “Applied Hydrology”, McGraw Hill Publications, New York, 1995.
  2. Subramanya K., “Hydrology,Tata McGraw Hill Co., New Delhi, 1994.
  3. Patra.K.C, “Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering”, Narosa Publications, 2008, 2nd Edition, New Delhi.
  4. Jeya Rami Reddy.P, “Hydrology, Laxmi Publications, New Delhi, 2004
  5. Larry W. Mays, “ Water Resources Engineering”, Wiley Publication

THEORY OF SEEPAGAE & EARTHEN DAMS

Course Objective:
To learn the basics of seepage theory and it’s analysis for calculation of seepage amount and providing the necessary
remedial measures in the earthen dam.
To use the basics of soil mechanics for construction and design of earthen dam.
Course Content:
Seepage analysis and treatment: Seepage analysis, pore pressure, hydraulic heads, flow net in confined and unconfined
condition, flow net of earthen dam in different condition – steady seepage and drawdown, graphical method, determination of
quantity of seepage, piping phenomenon, application of finite difference and finite element method, conformal mapping,
method of foundation treatment to control seepage.
Earth dam: Factors influencing design of earth dam, type of dams, design criteria for various components of earth dams,
filters for earth dam, filter design, requirement for the safety of earth dams, stability of earth dam slope -factor of safety,
safety against overtopping.
Quality control and failure measures in earthen dam: Embankment construction procedures, quality control,
Performances studies of earth dam, instrumentation, causes of failures of earth dams and corrective measures.
Course Outcome:
On completion of this course, the students should be able to draw the flow net and calculate the seepage amount for earthen
dam. Students should also able to learn various methods to control the seepage, factors affecting the design of earth dams,
causes of failure of earth dam and its measures.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Justin J. D., Hinds J. and Creager, P. W. “Engineering for Dams” Volume III, John Wiley & Sons Inc, Chapman & Hall,
    Ltd, London, 5th Reprint, 1955.
  2. George F. Sowers, Hari Lal Sally, “Earth and Rockfill dam engineering”, Asia Pub. House, 1962.
  3. Harr, M.E. “Ground water and seepage” McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 1962.
  4. Alam Singh “Soil engineering in theory and practice”, Volume 2, Asia Publishing House, 1981.

FLOOD & DROUGHT MANAGEMENT

Course Objective:
This subject aims at making the students to understand the hydrologic extremes of floods and droughts, estimation of
severity and extent of damages and the mitigation measures to combat them.
Course Content:
Flood Estimation and Routing:
Estimation of design flood – SPF/MPF empirical methods – Statistical methods – Frequency analysis – Unit hydrograph
method – Flood estimation in small watersheds and mountainous region – Estimation by lumped, distributed model – Routing
– Lumped – Distributed – Hydraulic and hydrological routing.
Flood Control and Management:
Flood control methods – Structural and non-structural measures – Flood plain Zoning – Flood disaster monitoring and
mitigation procedure – Methods of forecasting – Data analysis and warning – Flood fighting -Remote Sensing for flood
management.
Droughts:
Definitions based on rainfall, stream flow, vegetation and comprehensive aspects – Characterization of Drought/water
shortage/aridity/desertification – NCA classification – Direct and indirect losses.
Drought Assessment:
Drought indices – Drought severity assessment – meteorological, hydrological and agricultural aspects – IMD, Palmer, Herbst,
Aridity Indices and Ramaprasad methods.
Drought Monitoring and Management:
Drought monitoring – Supply and demand oriented measures – Traditional water conservation – Drought Prone Areas
Programme (DPAP) – Integrated drought management – Remote Sensing Applications for drought mitigation – NDVI
concepts.
Course Outcome:
Students know the different methods of design flood estimation and perform channel reservoir routing. They carryout flood
inundation modeling and suggest suitable flood control measures. Student acquires the knowledge about different types of
drought and their impacts. They asses the severity, duration and frequency of drought using drought using drought indices.
Students exposed to various approaches, measures and case studies of drought indices.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Chow V.T., Maidment D.R., Mays L.W., Applied Hydrology, McGraw Hill Publications, New York, 1995.
  2. Vijay P.Singh., Elementary Hydrology, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 1994.
  3. Yevjevich V., Drought Research Needs, Water Resources Publications, Colorado State University, USA, 1977

WATER POWER & DAM ENGINEERING

Course Objective:
The student is exposed to the design aspects of hydro-power plants, various components of hydropower plants and their
layout. Different types of dams design taking into account the suitability of the site and the different type loads that are likely
to be encountered.
Course Content:
Hydroelectric Power Development:
Introduction – Types of power development – Classification. Planning – Environmental Considerations – Data requirement for
assessment of hydropower. Components of hydropower.
Design of Hydropower Installation:
Components – Intake structure – water conductor systems – tunnels – surge tanks – penstocks – valves – anchor blocks.
Types of Power House:
Underground – semi-underground. Turbines and their foundations – structural and geotechnical aspects of power house
design.
Embankment Dam Engineering:
Introduction. Nature and classification of engineering soils. Principles of design. Materials and construction. Internal seepage.
Stability and stress. Settlement and deformation. Rockfill and rockfill embankments.
Concrete Dam Engineering:
Loading: Concepts and criteria. Gravity dam analysis. Buttress dam analysis. Arch dam analysis. Design features and
construction. Concrete for dams. Dam safety and instrumentation. Foundation measurements. Analysis of strain data.
Course Outcome:
The students will be able to get a basic knowledge of planning and designing hydropower plants.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Novak, P., Moffat, A.I.B., Nalluri, C. and Narayanan, R. Hydraulic Structures Unwin Hyman Ltd., London 1989.
  2. Dandekar, M.M. and Sharma, K.N. Water Power Engineering Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi 1994.
  3. USBR Design of Small Dams Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 1974.
  4. Sharma, H.D. Concrete Dams Metropolitan New Delhi 1981
  5. Varshney, R.S. Concrete Dams Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 1982.
  6. Varshney, R.S. Hydro Power Structures – Nem Chand Bros. Roorkee 1973 Guthrie, Brown J. (ed) Hydro Electric
    Engineering Practice Blackie and Son, Glasgow 1970

WATER QUALITY & POLLUTION

Course Objective:
To understand the idea, methodology and basic tools of water quality modeling, understand the different modelling
approaches, their scope and limitations, understand the transport of pollutants in different water bodies.
Course Content:
Water Quality:
Physical and chemical properties of water – Suspended and dissolved solids – EC and pH – Trace constituents – Principles
of water quality. – Water quality investigation – Sampling design – samplers – automatic samplers – data collection platforms –
Field kits and investigations – Water quality data storage, analysis and inference – Software packages.
Irrigation Water Quality:
Water quality standards – Water quality for irrigation – Salinity and permeability – Irrigation practices for poor quality water –
Waste water irrigation: problems and prospects – Saline water irrigation – Future strategies – Water quality indices.
Sources of Water Pollution:
Leaching of agrochemicals – Domestic sewage – characteristics – Water pollutants from industries – Dissolved oxygen sag
curve – Non Point Source (NPS) models – Agricultural Non Point Source (AGNPS) pollution model.
Water Pollution Abatement Technologies:
Flow diagram and working principle of Activated sludge process, Trickling filter – Oxidation pond – Aerated lagoons –
Advantages disadvantages and suitability – Packaged treatment units, advantages, disadvantages – Reverse osmosis.
Recycling and Reuse of Wastewater:
Reuse of wastewater in agriculture – prevalence and issues from around the world – Pretreatment technologies – Removal of
nutrients from treated water – Economic and social dimensions. – Constructed wetlands – reed beds.
Course Outcome:
The student will be able to understand the importance of water quality in water resources and sources of pollution and its
treatment and recycling.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. George Tchobanoglous, Franklin Louis Burton, Metcalf & Eddy, H. David Stense, Wastewater Engineering: Treatment
    and Reuse, McGraw-Hill, 2002.
  2. Mackenzie L Davis, David A Cornwell, Introduction to Environmental Engineering, McGraw-Hill 2006.
  3. Stum, M and Morgan, A., Aquatic Chemistry, Plenum Publishing company, USA, 1985.
  4. Lloyd, J.W. and Heathcote, J.A., Natural inorganic chemistry in relation to groundwater resources, Oxford University
    Press, Oxford, 1988.
  5. Newmann, E.I., Applied ecology, Blackwell Science ltd., Oxford, 1996.
  6. Sithamparanathan, J., Rangasamy, A. and Arunachalam, N., Ecosystem principles and sustainable agriculture, Scitech
    Publishers, Chennai, 1999.

TECHNO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF WATER DEVELOPMENT

Course Objective:
To learn the basics of techno economic analysis of water development.
To learn importance of the reservoir planning, water laws and operational strategies.
Course Content:
Development Course Objectives:
Need system, economic and social development, integrated development, multiple purpose of water resource development.
Institutional Studies:
Setup for evaluation implementation, operation water laws, regulation, organizations, and functions data requirement, primary
and secondary data, data related to development sectors, environment, and water resource related land and other natural
resources. Elements of welfare economics, resources economics, environmental economics, definition of the project
resources structure, elucidation of organization, managerial, social, technical, physical, institutional and economics
dimensions. Definition of primary and secondary impact, long-term and short-term impacts, identifications of casts and
benefits, evaluation research, Course Objective of post implementation, evolution, methodologies, elements of risk
Course Outcome:
On completion of this subject, the students will learn the basics of water resources development and techno economic
aspects of water development.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. James and Lae: Economics of water resource planning, McGraw Hills.
  2. Kuiper: Water resource development, planning engineering and economics.

DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC STRCUTURES

Course Objective:
The main objective of this course is to integrate the hydraulics and water resources background by involving the students in
water structures design applications and also to develop understanding of the basic principles and concepts of analysis and
design of hydraulic structures.
Course Content:
Introduction
An Introduction to Storage, Diversion, Conveyance and Distribution structures; Reservoirs behind dams and pond area
behind barrages: determination of capacities (influence of sedimentation). Dead and Live storages.
Design of storage structures:
Spillway and Non-overflow sections and their design, Types of spillways, Flow characteristics of gated/ungated spillways,
Types of energy dissipators Influence of tail water rating curve on choice of energy Dissipater, Backwater curve analysis for
reservoirs.
Diversion structures:
Barrages and weirs on permeable foundations, Barrage components: Glacis, Rigid apron, Flexible (concrete block) apron,
Design consideration of barrages for surface and sub-surface flows. Causes of failure, Bligh’s and Lane’s creep theory,
Khosla’s theory and method of independent variables, standard profiles, corrections, exit gradient, plotting of HGL, Design of
d/s and u/s protection works, length of pucca concrete floor.
Canal structures:
Head regulator, Cross regulator and Falls, Canal section design (unlined and lined); in cutting and filling, Aqueducts;
Superpassage; Syphon Aqueducts, Distribution structures for conveying water from canals to irrigation fields, Canal capacity
determination from field water requirements. Design considerations for cross drainage works: Fluming the canal. Design of
Channel Transition.
Course Outcome:
Students will be able to understand various types of hydraulic structures and advanced concepts for analysis and design of
hydraulic structures.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Grishin MM: Hydraulic Structures, Vol-I & II.
  2. Serge Lelliavsky: Design text book in civil engineering, Vol-I & II.
  3. Punmia B.C, Pande B.B, Irrigation and Water Power Engineering, Laxmi Publications Pvt.
  4. Garg S, Irrigation and Hydraulic Structures,Khanna Publishers, New Delhi.

SYSTEM ANALYSIS IN WATER RESOURCES

Course Objective:
Students will be introduced to application of systems concept to water resources planning and management. Optimization
technique for modeling water resources systems and advanced optimization techniques to cover the socio-technical aspects
will be taught.
Course Content:
System Concepts: Definition, classification, and characteristics of systems – Scope and steps in systems engineering –
Need for systems approach to water resources and irrigation.
Linear Programming: Introduction to operations research – Linear programming, problem formulation, graphical solution,
solution by simplex method – Sensitivity analysis, application to design and operation of Reservoir, Single And Multipurpose
Development Plans – Case Studies.
Dynamic Programming: Bellman’s optimality criteria, problem formulation and solutions – Application to design and
operation of reservoirs, Single and multipurpose reservoir development plans – Case studies.
Simulation: Basic principles and concepts – Random variant and random process – Monte Carlo techniques – Model
development – Inputs and outputs – Single and multipurpose reservoir simulation models – Case studies.
Advanced Optimization Techniques: Integer and parametric linear programming – Goal programming models with
applications Discrete differential dynamic programming and incremental dynamic programming – Linear decision rule models
with application – Stochastic dynamic programming models.
Course Outcome:
At the completion of the course the students will be able to understand the system behaviors and know how to apply the
various simulation and optimization techniques to resolve the various socio-technical aspects of water resources systems.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Gupta P.K and Man Mohan, Problems in Operations Research (Methods and solutions). Sultan Chand and sons, New
    Delhi, 1995
  2. Hiller F.S and Liebermann G.J., Operations Research CBS Publications and distributions. New Delhi, 1992.
  3. Chaturvedi. M.C., Water Resources Systems Planning and Management. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1997.
  4. Mays L.W., and Tung YK, Hydro systems Engineering and Management. McGraw Hill Inc., New York, 1992

WATERSHED CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT

Course Objective:
To provide the technical, economical and sociological understanding of a watershed and also a comprehensive discourse on
the engineering practices of watershed management for realizing the higher benefits of watershed management.
Course Content:
Watershed Concepts:
Introduction – Significance – Geology – Soil – Morphological Characteristics – Elements – Land Capability Classification –
Delineation – Codification – Factors Influencing Watershed Development
Soil Conservation Practice:
Types of Erosion – Wind Erosion: Causes, Factors, Effects and Control – Water Erosion: Types, Factors, Effects –
Engineering Measures for Erosion Control in Agricultural and Non-Agricultural Lands – Estimation of Soil Loss
Water Harvesting and Conservation:
Water Harvesting Techniques – Design of Small Water Harvesting Structures – Types of Storage Structures – Yield from a
Catchment – Losses of Stored Water
Watershed Management:
Strategies – Identification of Problems – Watershed Development Plan – Entry Point Activities –– Concept of Priority
Watersheds – Agroforestry – Grassland Management – Wasteland Management – Watershed Approach in Government
Programmes –Developing Collaborative know how – People’s Participation – Evaluation of Watershed Management
Watershed Assessment Models:
Regulation and Restoration – A Brief Description and Significance of Watershed Models: SWAT, TMDL, AGNPS, BASINS,
CREAMS –Case Studies
Course Outcome:
Students will be able to apply the knowledge of overall concepts of watershed which would help to comprehend and analyze
for better management.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Debarry A. Paul, Watersheds, Wiley and Sons, 2004.
  2. Devanport E. Thomas, Watershed Project Management Guide, Lewis Publishers, London, 2003.
  3. Ghanashyam Das, Hydrology and Soil Conservation engineering, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi,
    2000.
  4. Glenn O. Schwab, Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, 1981.

WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AND BURIED PIPELINES

Course Objective:
To educate the students in detailed design concepts related to water transmission mains, water distribution system and
buried pipes with emphasis on computer application.
Course Content:
Water Supply Systems:
Water requirement – sources of water – water demand – reservoir storage – nodal hydraulic gradient level values – water
supply consideration, Types of water supply systems- piping system- distribution network- labeling- network components –
Network models – design – optimization in practice
Hydraulic Principles and Network Parameters:
Energy and hydraulic gradient lines – head loss in links – equivalent pipes – series – parallel pipes – path head loss and loop
head loss – analysis of water distribution network- static node, dynamic node – network performance – flow analysis – Layout
– in situ lining – pipes material – appurtenances – minimization of water losses – leak detection.
Storm Water Distribution and Buried Pipes:
Planning – runoff estimation – rainfall data analysis – storm water drain design Introduction to Buried pipes – external loads –
gravity flow design, pressurized flow- rigid and flexible pipes – installation – trenchless technology
Reliability Assessment and Design:
Uncertainty and reliability – affecting events- assessment – reliability parameters- configurations. Design methodology –
strengthening and expansion
Software Applications:
Use of software in water transmission, water distribution and sewer design – LOOP 4.0, SEWER, EPANET, BRANCH,
SEWERCAD, WATERCAD, STROMNET
Course Outcome:
The students will be able to get a basic knowledge of the design of pipe networks and also they will be able to analyze pipe
network problems using computer software.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Bhave P. R, Optimal design of water distribution networks, Narosa publishing House, New Delhi, 2003
  2. Bajwa. G. S, Practical handbook on Public Health Engineering, Deep publishers, Shimla 2003
  3. Manual on water supply and treatment, CPHEEO, Ministry of Urban Development, GOI, New Delhi, 1999
  4. B.A. Hauser, practical hydraulics Hand Book, Lewis Publishers, New York, 1991

PLANNING, ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF CONCRETE DAMS

Course Objective:
The aim of the course is to provide the students an overview on planning, analysis and design of concrete dams.
Course Content:
Investigation and planning for Concrete dams:
Introduction, Selection of dam site, Types of reservoir and zones of storage, Types of dam, Construction material.
Rock Mechanics and dam foundation design:
Introduction of Dam foundation investigation methods, Foundations design method, Foundation treatment, and Foundation
analysis.
Gravity dams:
Dam parameters, Forces acting on dam, Types of load, Elementary Profile of gravity dam, Methods of stability analysis,
Gravity analysis, Internal stress calculation.
Hollow and cored Gravity dams:
Introduction of hollow gravity dams, cored gravity dam.
Buttress Dams:
Types of buttress dams, Economical profile, and Design principle of buttress dam.
Arch Dams:
Development and layout of arch dams, Types of arch dams, Design of an arch dam.
Instrument and strain analysis: Necessity of instruments, Measurements, Instruments and planning of installation.
Course Outcome:
At the end of the course, outcomes are expected to have an overall understanding of the behavior, analysis and design for
gravity dams in order to enable them to plan and direct the construction activity appropriately and also there will be a clear
appreciation of how design methodology for concrete gravity dams has evolved in the recent years.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. R.S.Varshney: Concrete Dams.
  2. Justin, Hinds, Creager Et Al: Engineering for dams, Wiley Eastern.
  3. Jansen, Robert B, Advanced Dam Engineering for design, construction, and rehabilitation

GROUND WATER MODELLING AND MANAGEMENT

Course Objective:
To introduce the students with the application of management models to estimate the groundwater quantity and qualities and
also students will understand the inputs, system parameters, policy, variables and outputs of a groundwater management
models.
Course Content:
Groundwater Prospecting:
Investigation and evaluation – Geophysical methods- Electrical Resistivity methods – Interpretation of data – Seismic method
– Subsurface investigation – Test drilling – Resistivity logging – Application of remote sensing techniques.
Groundwater Flow Model:
Physical models – Analog models – Mathematical modeling – Unsaturated flow models Numerical modeling of groundwater
flow – Finite Differential equations – Finite difference solution – Successive over Relaxation, Alternating direction implicit
procedure – Crank Nicolson equation – Iterative methods -Direct methods – Inverse problem – Finite element method
Contaminant Transport Model:
Contaminant transport theory – Advection, dispersion equation – Longitudinal and transverse dispersivity – Hydrodynamic
dispersion – Analytical models – Numerical simulation of solute transport – Solution methods – Sorption model – Subsurface
mass transport through the vadose zone – Density driven flow – Heat transport.
Model Development:
Data requirements – Conceptual model design : Conceptualization of aquifer system – Parameters, Input-output stresses,
Initial and Boundary conditions – Model design and execution : Grid design, Setting boundaries, Time discretization and
Transient simulation – Model calibration : steady state and unsteady state – sensitivity analysis – Model validation and
prediction – Uncertainty in the model prediction
Groundwater Management Model:
Optimal groundwater development – Indian GEC norms – Conjunctive use models Modeling multilayer groundwater flow
system -Modeling contaminant migration – Modeling fracture flow system – Artificial recharge feasibility through modeling –
Simulation of movements of solutes in unsaturated zone – Stochastic modeling of groundwater flow – Groundwater
contamination, restoration and management
Course Outcome:
Students will able to develop and apply numerical model for various application along with better understanding aquifer
characteristics.
Text Book/Reference Book:

  1. Anderson M.P., and Woessner W.W., Applied Groundwater Modelling : Simulation of flow and advective transport,
    Academic Press, Inc., 1992
  2. Fetter C.W., Contaminant Hydrogeology, Prentice Hall, 1999
  3. Rushton K.R., Groundwater Hydrology : Conceptual and Computational Models, Wiley, 2003
  4. Elango L. and Jayakumar, R. Modelling in Hydrology, Allied Publishers Ltd., 2001

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