Advanced Engineering Geology
Engineering geology in theory and practice. Influence of various minerals on the engineering behavior of rocks, Engineering properties of rocks.
Engineering Geological Investigation for Tunnels or underground openings; stability of portal sections; evaluation of tunnel alignment.
Choice of method of tunneling depending on the geological framework.
Mass movements, slope stability problems, their predictions
Earthquakes and seismicity, seismic zones of India, influence of seismicity on underground openings. Problems in underground openings of coastal area.
- Engineering Geology and Geotechniques By. F. G. Bell.
- Engineering Geology By De Fratus.
- Engineering Geology By Tony Walthem.
Tunneling and Underground Space Applications
Historical: Natural caves, archeological caves and their construction, tunnels for road, rail and hydropower.
Need for Underground Space: Congestion driven needs for development of infrastructure for transport, water, power supply, vehicle movement in cities, storage of materials.
Engineering Utilities: Hydropower tunnels and caverns, underground storage for LPG, LNG, Crude and its products – basic principles.
Nuclear Waste Disposal: Conditions for waste disposal, effect of radioactivity and heat on surrounding rock, conceptual design of a nuclear waste disposal facility
Strategic Utilities: Defense facilities, civil shelters, navy bases, air force hangers, safety and risk assessment
Other Storage: Grain storage, their advantages, disadvantages, underground cold storage and cellar for foods and beverages
Modern Developments: Underground ring roads in mega cities, submerged and floating tunnels, underground libraries, museums, dwelling units, resorts.
Traffic surveillance and control system (TSCS) in tunnels: Traffic control signs, signals, lights, cameras.
Tutorials: Preparation of different underground space application plans.
- Engineering Geology & Tunnels Engineering, Jaafar Mohammed
- Tunnel Engineering Handbook, John O. Bickel and T. R. Kuesel, Krieger Publishing Company
- Art of Tunnelling, K. Szechy
Introduction: Scope and application, historical developments, art of tunneling, tunnel engineering, future
Types of Underground Excavations: Tunnel, adit, decline, shaft; parameters influencing location, shape
and size; geological aspects; planning and site investigations
Tunneling Methods: Types and purpose of tunnels; factors affecting choice of excavation technique;
Methods – soft ground tunneling, hard rock tunneling, shallow tunneling, deep tunneling; Shallow tunnels
– cut and cover, cover and cut, pipe jacking, jacked box excavation techniques, methods of muck
disposal, supporting, problems encountered and remedial measures.
Tunneling by Drilling and Blasting: Unit operations in conventional tunneling; Drilling – drilling
principles, drilling equipment, drilling tools, drill selection, specific drilling, rock drill ability factors;
Blasting – explosives, initiators, blasting mechanics, blast holes nomenclature; types of cuts- fan, wedge
and others; blast design, tunnel blast performance – powder factor, parameters influencing, models for
prediction; mucking and transportation equipment selection.
Tunneling by Road headers and Impact Hammers: Cutting principles, method of excavation,
selection, performance, limitations and problems.
Tunneling by Tunnel Boring Machines: Boring principles, method of excavation, selection,
performance, limitations and problems; TBM applications.
Supports in Tunnels: Principal types of supports and applicability.
Ground Treatment in Tunneling: Adverse ground conditions and its effect on tunneling; introduction to
Tunnel Services: Ventilation, drainage and pumping.
Methods of Sinking Shafts: Vertical and inclined, decline; shaft/raise boring machines and their
Tunneling Hazards: Explosion, flooding, chimney formation, squeezing ground.
- Underground excavation of rock, Hoek and Brown
- Rock Engineering, Palmström and Stille
Rock Mass Characterization
Application of rock mechanics in civil/mining industry
Concept of Stress and Strain in Rock:
Failure Criteria for Rock and Rock Mass: Classical theories of rock failure: Coulomb’s criterion, Mohr’s criterion, Griffith’s theory, Cook-Wiebol’s criteria; Empirical failure criteria.
Strength and Deformability of Rock Mass: In situ shear tests; evaluation of shear strength; in situ bearing strength test; in situ deformability tests- plate loading test, plate jacking test and borehole jack tests.
Engineering Classification of Rocks and Rock Masses: Classification systems in rock engineering classification of intact rocks; classification of rockmasss system- Terzaghi’s rock load, RMR, Q-system,
Laubscher’s – MRMR, Hoek’s – GSI, Palmstrom’s RMi, CMRI-ISM rock mass classification and recent developments; correlations between different classification systems; applications of rock mass classification in rock engineering.
Groundwater flow: Permeability and pressure: Groundwater flow within soil and rock masses; permeability conditions; influence of groundwater soil and rock mass behavior; measurement of groundwater pressure
and permeability. Response of Rock mass to Excavations Underground: Induced stresses and displacements around single and multiple excavations in rock mass; energy changes due to excavations in underground.
Monitoring of Excavation Stability: Purpose and nature of monitoring excavation stability, instrumentation and monitoring systems of stability of rock excavation-load; stress and deformation measuring devices; interpretation of monitoring data; practical aspects of monitoring.
Rock bursts: Type, effect and causes of rock bursts; mechanics of rock burst; prediction of rock burst; control of rock burst incidence and damage.
- Engineering & General Geology, Parbin Singh, S.K. Kataria & Sons, New Delhi
- A Text Book of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems, M.Anji Reddy, B S
- K.M., Principles of Engineering Geology, Bangar, Standard Publishers Distributors
- Structural Geology, Billings, Marland P., Prentice-Hall India, New Delhi
Planning and geometric design for tunnels and
Introduction: Planning and design process for excavation of roadways, tunnels and caverns
Underground Space Planning and Design: Benefits and draw backs, classification and configurations, psychological and physiological effects, Legal and administrative issues, exterior and entrance design, layout and spatial contributions.
Geo-engineering Investigations for Rock/rock mass Characterization: Topographical and geological survey, augering, drilling, soil and rock sampling and testing, preparing sub-surface geological cross section, geo radar use and data analysis for shallow tunnels, geophysical investigations to prove deeper sub-surface features, Physico-mechanical properties and collection of rock mechanical data, stability analysis and identification of failure.
Planning and Design: Determination of appropriate location, size, shape and alignment, Assessment of behavior of tunneling media – deformation modulus and support pressure measurement, instrumentation and monitoring of rockmass performance, application of numerical modeling in space design, earthquake effects on tunnels, design of underground space in rocks with the help of field data.
Planning and Design of tunnels in soft ground: design considerations, lining type, short term and long-term behavior, subsidence, instrumentation and monitoring, case study.
Planning and Design of tunnels and caverns in hard rock: design considerations, design approaches, estimation of support pressures, ground behavior, instrumentation and monitoring, case study.
- Tunnel Engineering Handbook, by J.O. Bickel and T.R. Kuesel .
- Rock Mechanics Design in Mining and Tunneling by Z.T. Bieniawski
Analysis and Design of Tunnel Supporting Systems
Design and operational criteria and principal support types used in civil/mining engineering applications.
Underground excavation support design: Rock support interaction analysis, use of rock mass
classifications for estimating support requirement, classification of supports, passive and active supports temporary and permanent supports.
Wooden supports: Types, application, typical capacities, forepoling
Steel supports: Lining types, cast iron-steel linings, RSJ supports, rigid and yielding type arches, design and selection of arches, support of wedges or blocks which are free to fall, support of wedges or blocks which are free to slide, comparison of underground excavations support predictions.
Rock bolts and wire mesh:
Introduction, mechanism of support, organization of rock bolting programme, review of typical rock bolt systems, rock bolt installations, wire mesh, Pre-tensioning, testing, pre-reinforcement of rock mass.
Concrete and Shotcrete.
Lining: Engineering properties of concrete, concrete segmental supports, cast in situ or monolithic concrete lining, water proofing of concrete lining; engineering properties of shotcrete, design of steel fiber reinforced shotcrete.
Grouting and Freezing:
Methods Compensation grouting, Jet grouting, Advance grouting, Ground freezing
Support of tunnels and underground space:
New Austrian Tunneling Method, Norwegian Tunneling Method. Support design exercises: Case studies covering some tunnels and caverns
- Practical Tunnel Construction, Hemphill, G. B. 2012. John Wiley & Son
- Tunnel Design Overview. Prasad, B. 2015.
Advanced excavation techniques for tunnels
and underground space
Introduction: Underground space – types, location, size, shape, purpose; excavation process of large tunnels and caverns for hydel, LPG and storage caverns
Advanced Excavation Techniques: Advanced drilling techniques – measure while drilling, drilling
machines for longer drill holes, automation in drilling machines, drilling patterns; Controlled blasting techniques – line drilling, pre-splitting, smooth blasting, cushion blasting, Factors responsible for overbreak, overbreak estimation and control, problems of drilling and blasting for large tunnels and caverns; Advances in road heading and TBM technologies, cuttability/boreability assessment, performance prediction in tunneling with machine selection methodology.
Shield Tunneling: Introduction; advantages of shield tunneling; classification; different types of shield tunneling techniques – open shield, close shield, half shield; conventional shields, special features in shield tunneling; factors affecting selection of a shield; slurry shield, earth pressure balance shield, slime shields, other shield development methods, problems encountered with possible remedies.
Twin tunnels: excavation process, case study of a twin tunnel project
Excavation of large and deep tunnels: Introduction; purpose and use of large and deep tunnels;
excavation issues governing large and deep tunnels; excavation methods of large and deep tunnels – unit operations, different equipment, types of rock pressure and methods to deal, roof and wall supports, case studies from hydel, road and rail tunnels.
Excavation of large and deep caverns: Introduction; purpose and use of large and deep caverns; excavation issues governing large and deep caverns; excavation methods of large and deep caverns – unit operations, different equipment, types of rock pressure and methods to deal, roof and wall supports, case studies from hydel, LPG and storage caverns.
Submerged and Floating Tunnels; Micro-tunneling; Trenchless excavation
Novel Excavation Techniques: Penetrating Cone Fracture, Bottom-hole pressurisation, Expanding cements, Diamond wire saw.
- Underground tunnel excavation/passages methods and excavation techniques , Aydın
Numerical Modeling in Ground Control
Introduction: Numerical modeling techniques for rock mechanics and ground control, excavation in rock and related rock mechanics problems, need of numerical modeling in solving the ground control problem in underground structures.
Finite element Method: Potential energy and Rayleigh-Ritz method, finite element form of Rayleigh-Ritz method, isoperimetric formulation of FE, introduction to non-linear solution method.
Finite Difference method: Derivation of finite difference equations, introduction to FDM implementation in
Constitutive modeling and their uses: Mohr’s Coulomb plasticity model for simulation of rock failure, interfaces to simulate the bedding planes, simulation of support in rock: bolts, props and lining
Solution of tri diagonal system; Evaluation of double and triple integrals by numerical method and its application, solution of non-linear simultaneous equations, numerical solution of integral equations;
Advanced method of interpolation, Spline interpolation; Numerical solution of simultaneous first order ordinary differential equations (ODE); Initial and Boundary value problems; Numerical solution of partial differential equations; Laplace and Poisson equation; Heat conduction and wave equations.
Review of binomial, Poisson, normal and log normal distributions. Interval estimates, tests of significance for mean, variance (one & two population case – Z, t, χ2 and F tests), tests for correlation and regression
coefficients. Non-parametric tests: Sign test, Mann-Whiteney Wilcoxon U-test, run test and test of randomness. One way and two way analysis of variance. Time series analysis, reliability and life testing experiments in engineering problems.
- Numerical Modeling for Designing Tunnel Support, Keping Zhou Changsha and Ming Xia
- Numerical Modeling for Shallow Tunnels in Weak Rock, Evert Hoek
Tunnel Safety and hazard analysis
History of Safety movement –Evolution of modern safety concept- general concepts of management – planning for safety for optimization of productivity -productivity, quality and safety-line and staff functions for safety-budgeting for safety-safety policy. Incident Recall Technique (IRT), disaster control, job safety analysis, safety survey, safety inspection, safety sampling, evaluation of performance of supervisors on safety.
Components of safety audit, types of audit, audit methodology, non conformity reporting (NCR), audit checklist and report – review of inspection, remarks by government agencies, consultants, experts – perusal of accident and safety records, formats – implementation of audit indication – liaison with departments to ensure co-ordination – check list – identification of unsafe acts of workers and unsafe conditions in the shop floor.
To promote safety for those who work in underground construction, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration requires that employees receive extensive training in: Air monitoring and ventilation, Illumination, Communications ,Flood control ,Personal protective equipment ,Emergency procedures, including evacuation plans, Check-in/check-out procedures, Explosives, Fire prevention and protection,
Hard physical labor bodily injuries, roof falls or cave-ins, head injuries, crush injuries, suffocation or death. , Exposure to crystalline silica dust and cement dust, respiratory, lung or skin problems.
Exposure to chemical vapors, lung problems, including chemical pneumonitis, respiratory failure and death if left unchecked. Exposure to radon can cause lung cancer. Oxygen-deficient atmospheres can contribute to breathing problems, such as asthma
Ventilation for tunnels and underground space
Underground environment: Composition of atmospheric air, O2 deficiency – causes, effects & detection,
Underground environment: Composition, Underground gases- CO2, CO, H2S, NOx, CH4, Radon gas – properties, physiological effects on man, occurrence & detection, Assessment, monitoring and remedial measures- Sampling and analysis of air –Gas chromatography, IR gas analyzer.
Heat and Humidity: Sources of heat in underground space, Metabolism and heat balance in human body, physiological effects of heat and humidity, Psychometry, Cooling power of air, Air conditioning – basic
Dust : Sources, measurement equipment & techniques, control measures
Air flow through underground openings: Introduction, general energy balance equation , flow of viscous fluids, laminar and turbulent flow, resistance of smooth walled pipes, flow through ducts, shock resistance, pressure losses, determination of resistance in air ways(pressure drop and quantity of flow through field
Methods of Ventilation and Equipment: Natural ventilation – Causes, Natural Ventilation Pressure (NVP)-
Calculation of NVP from air density, Motive column, other methods of determining NVP, Numerical problems, Mechanical ventilation- Types of fans, Centrifugal fan – theoretical head developed, theoretical characteristic curves, fan losses, actual characteristics curves of CF fan, fan efficiency, Axial-flow fan – drag and lift, characteristic curves, variable pitch fan., Fan laws, Selection of fan, installation of fan – forcing & exhaust, Fan drift, diffuser, series and parallel operation of fans, fan control, Booster fan – function of booster fan, installation, pressure gradient diagram and positioning, Auxiliary ventilation,
Forcing and exhaust ventilation systems, Numerical problems.
Standards of ventilation tunnels made for different purposes
Planning & Design of ventilation system for tunnels
Lighting systems and fixtures in tunnels: specifications, maintenance, emergency lighting
- Road Tunnel Ventilation Compendium and practical guideline by Petr Pospisil.
- Tunnel Ventilation , Practical Tunnel construction by Gary B. Hemphill
Construction of Tunnel ( TBM and NATM)
Introduction: Underground space – types, location, size, shape, purpose; excavation process of large tunnels.
Advanced Excavation Techniques: Advanced drilling techniques – measure while drilling, drilling machines for longer drill holes, automation in drilling machines, drilling patterns; Controlled blasting techniques – line drilling, pre-splitting, smooth blasting, cushion blasting, Factors responsible for overbreak, overbreak estimation and control, problems of drilling and blasting for large tunnels and caverns; Advances in roadheading and TBM technologies, cuttability/boreability assessment, performance prediction in tunnelling with machine selection methodology.
Shield Tunneling: Introduction; advantages of shield tunnelling; classification; different types of shield tunneling techniques – open shield, close shield, half shield; conventional shields, special features in shield tunnelling; factors affecting selection of a shield; slurry shield, earth pressure balance shield, slime shields, other shield development methods, problems encountered with possible remedies.
Twin tunnels: excavation process, case study of a twin tunnel project
Excavation of large and deep tunnels: Introduction; purpose and use of large and deep tunnels; excavation issues governing large and deep tunnels; excavation methods of large and deep tunnels – unit operations, different equipment, types of rock pressure and methods to deal, roof and wall supports, case studies from hydel, road and rail tunnels.
Excavation of large and deep caverns: Introduction; purpose and use of large and deep caverns; excavation issues governing large and deep caverns; excavation methods of large and deep caverns – unit operations,
different equipment, types of rock pressure and methods to deal, roof and wall supports, case studies from hydel, LPG and storage caverns.
Submerged and Floating Tunnels; Micro-tunnelling; Trenchless excavation
Novel Excavation Techniques: Penetrating Cone Fracture, Bottom-hole pressurisation, Expanding cements, Diamond wire saw\
- Practical Tunnel Construction, Gary B. Hemphill, Wiley Publication
- Tunnel Engineering Handbook, Authors: Kuesel, Thomas R., King, Elwyn H., Bickel, John