Masters in Soil Conservation & Engineering

Applied Hydrology

Basic hydrometeorology; Hydrologic cycle; Intensity-duration-frequency analysis of
rainfall data; Interpretation of precipitation data; Stream flow measurement; stage
discharge relation; Interpretation of stream flow data; Run-off components and
computations; Hydrograph analysis; Characteristics, separation for simple and complex storms; unit hydrograph theory and its application; derivation of unit hydrograph, Shydrograph
and instantaneous hydrograph; Flood estimation and routing; Stochastic
process in hydrology; Hydrologic design of Engineering structures

Soil-Water-Plant Relationship

Soil water retention; Infiltration and water uptake; Measurement of soil water content;
concept and measurement of soil water potential, Metric potential and Solute potential;
Water exchange in plant cells and tissues; Water movement through the plant systems;
Concept and measurement of transpiration and Evapotranspiration; Energy and water
balance; Factors affecting plant-water status, Metabolic and other characteristics for
efficient water use; Availability of soil water for plant growth; Response of plant to
water deficit; Effect of salinity on internal water deficit and plant growth.

Fluid Mechanics and Open Channel Hydraulics

Fluid flow concept and its Kinematics; Flow Characteristics; Flow measurements; Euler’s
equation; Ideal fluid flow; Vortex; Irrotational and rotational flow velocity potential; stream
function; flow net; Characteristics of open channel flow; steady-unsteady, uniform, Nonuniform,
laminar and turbulent flow; Energy and momentum principles; Critical flow
computation and application; Boundary layer concept; Velocity distribution and instability of
uniform flow; Gradually varied flow theory and analysis; Method of Computation; Channel
design; Hydraulic Jump concept and its application.

Drainage of Agricultural Land

Nature and extent of Drainage Problems; drainage Investigation; Hydraulic conductivity
measurement in-situ; Definition and calculation of drainage design criteria under rainfed and
irrigated conditions; Steady and transient – state drainage equations; Design, alignment,
construction and maintenance of surface and subsurface drainage systems; Design, construction and maintenance of mole drains; Guideline for the selection of envelope materials for subsurface drain; Design, construction and maintenance of well drains; Drainage machineries.

Advanced Soil and Water Conservation Engineering

Basic concepts of soil erosion; control of soil erosion; Mechanics of wind and water erosion;
water and wind erosion control practices; concept of runoff and its estimation; Design,
construction and maintenance of vegetated waterways; Planning, Design, Construction and
maintenance of terraces, contours and bunds; Design of water harvesting structures and farm
ponds; Flood control and routing; Design of landslide control structures; Selection of appropriate irrigation and drainage systems for efficient soil and water conservation; cost analysis.

Watershed Development and Management

Concept of watershed development and management; collection of hydrological data; watershed characteristics and hydrologic cycle; problems of land degradation; Land use capability classification and topographical characteristics of watershed; Appropriate soil and water conservation measures for agricultural and non-agricultural lands; Grassland development and management; Techniques for dry land farming based on watershed characteristics; water harvesting techniques for hilly and arid regions; Hydrological and sediment monitoring of watershed; Estimation of peak design runoff rate; Planning, management and economic evaluation of watershed development projects; case studies

Design of Soil and Water Conservation Structures

Selection, design and stability analysis of earth fill, rock fill and concrete gravity dams; Design
of drop spillway, chute spillway and pipe spillway; Phenomena of hydraulic jump; energy
dissipation; Design of outlet and control structures; Operation and maintenance of small dams
and conservation structures

Soil Salinity and Water Quality

Scope and significance of salinity and sodicity; Source and accumulation of soluble salts; Extent
and distribution of salt affected soils; Salinity and sodicity management; Soil salinity profiles;
Plant response to salinity; Salt tolerance evaluation’ Leaching and salinity control; Leaching
requirement and methods.
Composition of irrigation water; Suitability of water for irrigation; Salinity management
techniques through irrigation; Waste water treatment and re-use for irrigation; Salt and water
balance models; Guidelines for inter-predation of water quality for irrigation

Air Photo Interpretation and Remote Sensing

Types of arial photography and factors affecting its quality; Instruments, equipment and material needed for arial photography and its interpretation; Techniques for interpretation of arial photography.
Basic principles of remote sensing and its application in agriculture and land management; It’s
use in agricultural and water resource assessment and watershed management; Factor’s affecting quality of remote sensing; Imaginaries and techniques and material needed for its interpretations

Land Reclamation

Causes of Land degradation; salinity and sodicity; extent of water logging and salinity problem
in India and U.P.; De-salinization and de-sodification; Reclamation and management of saline
soils; Leaching method and period; Salt Balance; Salinity control and Leaching requirements;
Estimating Leaching requirements; Reclamation and management of sodic soils; Reclamation of
water logged and salt affected soil through drainage systems; Afforestation of salt affected soils; Selection, operation and maintenance of Land Reclamation machinery; Economic and social aspects of Land Reclamation.

Agricultural Meteorology

Definition and Scope; solar radiation; Radiation balance; crop response to solar radiation; Soil
heat flux and soil temperature; air temperature and sensible heat flux; Heat transport and
temperature profile in plant canopies; Wind and turbulent transport; crop response to humidity;
Transport of water vapour from evaporating surfaces to air; Effect of microclimate on
evaporation and evapotranspiration; Micrometeorological methods for estimating
evapotranspiration; Advection; Photosynthesis; Environmental factors controlling
photosynthesis, Light- energy conversion and photosynthesis efficiency, photosynthesis and
water use efficiency, Field measurement of photosynthesis; Carbon-dioxide balance; Frost and
Frost control; Methods for improving water use efficiency; Instrumentation in Agricultural
Meteorology.

Waste Land Development and Management

Land suitability classification according to USBR; Land suitability categories according to FAO
framework; Land evaluation; Mapping of degraded soil through soil survey; Land degradation in arid and semi-arid regions, Land degradation due to erosion, Land degradation management by conservation practices; Causes, reclamation and management of water logged and salt affected soils; Rehabilitation and management of ravine lands; Selection, Design and management of irrigation and drainage systems in wastelands; Economic evaluation of wasteland development projects.

Flow Through Porous Media

Soil physical characteristics related to water movement; Movement of soil water;
Energy concept of soil water; Flow of water in saturated and unsaturated soils; Water
retention and flow in field soils; Basic flow equations; Steady and unsteady flow and its
boundary value problems; Darey’s, Laplace, Dupuit and Boussinsq equations and
approximation; Numerical solution of flow problems

Soil Erosion, Transportation and Sedimentation

Mechanics of soil erosion, Importance and source of sediment transport; Field investigation and survey; Mechanics of sediment transport; Deposition and estimation of transported sediments in channels and reservoirs; Bed load estimation models; Estimation of sediment yield of a watershed; Sediment yield and transport models; Control of suspended and bed load movement through watershed planning and management

Forest Watershed Management

Concept, characteristics and hydrology of forest watershed; Investigation of streams; Impact of
land use changes; Deforestation, road building and other forest uses on forest stream quality and quantity; Radiation energy and water balance; Interception process and estimation; Precipitation and run-off estimation; Soil erosion in forest watershed; Selection and design of soil and water conservation structures; Simulation of hydrological processes in forest watershed.

Hydrological Modeling

Hydrologic events; Concepts of hydrological modeling; Probabilistic and statistical approach in
hydrological modeling; Optimization techniques; Reliability test of prediction models;
Estimation of model parameters; Data transformation, Calibration and evaluation of hydrologic
models.

Planning, Execution and Management of Soil and Conservation projects

Procedure for planning of soil and water conservation projects; Survey and investigation;
Analysis of watershed problems; Calculation techniques of different watershed parameter;
Legal, organizational and financial aspects of soil and water conservation projects;
Responsibilities of different operation offices; Economic and financial analyses of soil and water
conservation projects; Project evaluation; Management of soil and water conservation projects;
Education, training and peoples participation in watershed development projects; Case study

Watershed Hydrology

Components of hydrologic cycle; hydrologic transport; Statistical method in hydrology;
frequency analysis; time series analysis; hydrologic technology; data collection;
forecasting; hydrologic design; watershed modeling

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