## Physics (Oscillation, Waves and Optics)

UNIT I: Simple harmonic motion, damped and forced simple harmonic oscillator 9

Harmonic oscillator – Differential equation and solution of simple harmonic oscillator – simple pendulum – damped harmonic oscillator: Equation of motion and its solution, qualitative description of heavy, critical and light damping – energy decay in a damped harmonic oscillator – Q factor – forced mechanical and electrical oscillators – power absorbed by oscillator.

UNIT II: Non-dispersive transverse and longitudinal waves in one dimension and introduction to dispersion 9

Waves, travailing waves example of waves, characteristics of a waves – longitudinal and transverse waves–Examples – Transverse wave on a string, the wave equation on a string- longitudinal waves and the wave equation- acoustics waves and speed of sound- characteristics of musical sound, quality of tone, decibel- noise pollution- acoustics- of buildings – Reverberation – Reverberation time.

UNIT III: The propagation of light and geometric optics 9

Fermat’s principle of stationary time- laws of reflection and refraction- Fresnel equations, reflectance and transmittance, Brewster’s angle, total internal reflection – Dispersion, Dispersive power of prism- Defect of lenses- spherical aberration- coma-achromatic lenses.

UNIT IV: Wave optics 9

Huygens’ Principle, superposition of waves – Young’s double slit experiment- Newton’s rings-Michelson interferometer, Mach Zehnder interferometer – Fraunhofer diffraction from a single slit and a circular aperture, the Rayleigh criterion for limit of resolution and its application to vision – Dispersion of a diffraction of grating and their resolving power.

UNIT V: Lasers 9 Einstein’s theory of matter radiation interaction and A and B coefficients- population inversion, different types of lasers: gas lasers (He-Ne, CO2), solid-state lasers (ruby, Neodymium), dye lasers; Properties of laser beams: mono-chromaticity, coherence, directionality and brightness, laser speckles, applications of lasers in science, engineering and medicine

Suggested Reference Books

- Ian G. Main, Oscillations and waves in physics
- H.J. Pain, The physics of vibrations and waves
- E. Hecht, Optics
- A. Ghatak, Optics
- O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers

## Mathematics – I (Calculus and Linear Algebra)

UNIT I: Calculus: (12 hours)

Evolutes and involutes; Evaluation of definite and improper integrals; Beta and Gamma Functions and their properties; Applications of definite integrals to evaluate surface areas and volumes of revolutions.

UNIT II: Calculus: (12 hours)

Rolle’s Theorem Mean value theorems, Taylor’s and Maclaurin theorems with remainders; Indeterminate forms and L’Hospital’s rule; Maxima and minima.

UNIT III: Sequences and series: (12 hours)

Convergence of sequence and series, tests for convergence; Power series, Taylor’s series, series for exponential, trigonometric and logarithm functions; Fourier series: Half range sine and cosine series, Parseval’s theorem.

UNIT IV: Multivariable Calculus (Differentiation): (12 hours)

Limit, continuity and partial derivatives, directional derivatives, total derivative; Tangent plane and normal line; Maxima, minima and saddle points; Method of Lagrange multipliers; Gradient, curl and divergence.

UNIT V: Matrices (12 hours)

Inverse and rank of a matrix, rank-nullity theorem; System of linear equations; Symmetric, skew- symmetric and orthogonal matrices; Determinants; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors; Diagonalization of matrices; Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, and Orthogonal transformation.

Total Hours: 60

Textbooks/Reference

- G.B. Thomas and R.L. Finney, Calculus and Analytic geometry, 9th Edition, Pearson,

Reprint, 2002. - Erwin kreyszig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 9th Edition, John Wiley & Sons,

2006. - Veerarajan T., Engineering Mathematics for first year, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi,

2008. - Ramana B.V., Higher Engineering Mathematics, Tata McGraw Hill New Delhi,

11thReprint, 2010. - D. Poole, Linear Algebra: A Modern Introduction, 2nd Edition, Brooks/Cole, 2005.
- N.P. Bali and Manish Goyal, A textbook of Engineering Mathematics, Laxmi

Publications, Reprint, 2008. - B.S. Grewal, Higher Engineering Mathematics, Khanna Publishers, 36th Edition, 2010

## Basic Electrical Engineering

UNIT I DC Circuits 12

Electrical circuit elements (R, L and C), voltage and current sources, Kirchoff current and voltage laws, Mesh and Nodal analysis, Analysis of simple circuits with dc excitation, Wye↔Delta Transformation, Superposition, Thevenin and Norton Theorems. Time-domain analysis of first order RL and RC circuits.

UNIT II AC Circuits 12

Representation of sinusoidal waveforms, peak and rms values, phasor representation, real power, reactive power, apparent power, power factor. Analysis of single-phase ac circuits consisting of R, L, C, RL, RC, RLC combinations (series and parallel), resonance. Three phase balanced circuits, voltage and current relations in star and delta connections.

UNIT III Transformers 12

Magnetic materials, BH characteristics, ideal and practical transformer, equivalent circuit, losses in transformers, regulation and efficiency. Autotransformer and three-phase transformer connections.

UNIT IV Electrical Machines & Power Converters 12

Generation of rotating magnetic fields, Construction and working of a three-phase induction motor, Significance of torque-slip characteristic. Single phase induction motor. Construction, working, torque-speed characteristic and speed control of separately excited dc motor. DC-DC buck and boost converters, duty ratio control. Single phase Bridge Rectifier, Single Phase voltage source inverters.

UNIT IV Electrical Installations 12

Components of LT Switchgear: Switch Fuse Unit (SFU), MCB, ELCB, MCCB, Types of Wires and Cables, Earthing. Types of Batteries, Important Characteristics for Batteries. Elementary calculations for energy consumption, power factor improvement and battery backup.

TOTAL: 60 hours

Text / References:

- D. P. Kothari and I. J. Nagrath, “Basic Electrical Engineering”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2010.
- D. C. Kulshreshtha, “Basic Electrical Engineering”, McGraw Hill, 2009.
- L. S. Bobrow, “Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering”, Oxford University Press, 2011.
- E. Hughes, “Electrical and Electronics Technology”, Pearson, 2010.
- V. D. Toro, “Electrical Engineering Fundamentals”, Prentice Hall India, 1989.

## Engineering Graphics

UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING DRAWING AND PLANE CURVES 12

Curves used in engineering practices: Conics – Construction of ellipse, Parabola and hyperbola by eccentricity method – Construction of cycloid, Epicycloid, Hypocycloid – construction of involutes of squad and circle – Drawing of tangents and normal to the above curves. Scales – Plain, Diagonal and Vernier Scales.

UNIT II PROJECTION OF POINTS, LINES AND PLANE SURFACES 12

Projection of points and straight lines located in the first quadrant – Determination of true lengths and true inclinations – Projection of polygonal surface and circular lamina inclined to both reference planes – Auxiliary Planes

UNIT III PROJECTION OF SOLIDS 12

Projection of simple solids like prisms, pyramids, cylinder and cone when the axis is inclined to one reference plane by change of position method – Auxiliary Views

UNIT IV SECTION OF SOLIDS AND DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES 12

Sectioning of above solids in simple vertical position by cutting planes inclined to one reference plane and perpendicular to the other – Obtaining true shape of section – Auxiliary Views. Development of lateral surfaces of simple and truncated solids – Prisms, pyramids, cylinders and cones – Development of lateral surfaces of solids with cylindrical cutouts, perpendicular to the axis.

UNIT V ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION AND ISOMETRIC PROJECTION 12

Free hand sketching: Representation of Three-Dimensional objects – General principles of orthographic projection – Need for importance of multiple views and their placement – layout views – Developing visualization skills through free hand sketching of multiple views from pictorial views of objects.

Principles of isometric projection – isometric scale – isometric projections of simple solids, truncated prisms, pyramids, cylinders and cones.

TOTAL: 60 Hours

TEXTBOOKS:

- N.D. Bhatt, “Engineering Drawing” Charotar Publishing House, 46 th Edition, (2003).

REFERENCES: - K. V. Natrajan, “A textbook of Engineering Graphics”, Dhanalakshmi Publishers, Chennai (2006).
- M.S. Kumar, “Engineering Graphics”, D.D. Publications, (2007).
- K. Venugopal & V. Prabhu Raja, “Engineering Graphics”, New Age International (P) Limited (2008).
- M.B. Shah and B.C. Rana, “Engineering Drawing”, Pearson Education (2005).
- K. R. Gopalakrishnana, “Engineering Drawing” (Vol.I&II), Subhas Publications (1998). 6. Dhananjay A.Jolhe, “Engineering Drawing with an introduction to AutoCAD” Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited (2008).
- Basant Agarwal and Agarwal C.M., “Engineering Drawing”, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, (2008).

## Engineering Mechanics

Unit I Concurrent forces in a plane 9

Concurrent forces in a plane – Review of vectors, statics, types of forces, Moments, Parallel forces in a plane.

Unit II Properties of areas 9

Properties of areas- moment of inertia of plane figure about an axis, principal axes of three-dimensional bodies, calculation of mass moment of inertia of plates, cylinders and spheres, S.F and B.M Diagrams, Stress and Strain.

Unit III General cases of forces in a plane 9

General cases of forces in a plane – Equilibrium of forces in a plane, plane trusses, method of joint and sections, method of substitution funicular polygon, Maxwell diagrams, flexible suspension cables. Cantilever and simply supported beams with concentrated and distributed and moment loads.

Unit IV Force system in space 9

Force system in space, principle of virtual work, efficiency of simple machines stable and unstable Equilibrium, Interfacial friction – static, kinetic and rolling friction, Application to inclined planes, wedges, Screw jacks and belts.

Unit V Kinematics and Kinetics of particles 9

Kinematics and Kinetics of particles – Rectilinear motion of particles relative motion, D’ Alembert’s principle, inertia couple, constrained motion, non-centroidal motion, translation and rotation of rigid bodies, virtual work energy arid work. Curvilinear translation, rotation of rigid body, plane motion of a rigid body, impulse and momentum, conversion and momentum, momentum and momentum equation, rotational motion.

Total hours: 45

Textbooks

- Dr. K.L. Kumar, “Engineering Mechanics”, Tata Mc-graw Hill
- R. S. Khurmi , Engineering Mechanics, S. Chand and company Ltd. 2008

Reference Books - Timoshenko & Young, “Engineering Mechanics”, CBS Publishers and distributors private limited, new Delhi, 2004.
- Beer & Johnson, “Engineering Mechanics”, Tata Mc – Graw Hill, New Delhi, 2009
- S. Rajasekara, “Engineering Mechanics-Statics and dynamics”,

## Basic Ship Theory

UNIT -1: Introduction 9

Historical review – ancient types of vessels (rafts, boats, and ships), the role of the ship in the ages of the great discoveries. Types of ships-terms and definitions, cargo ships (general cargo ships, bulk carriers, container ships, Ro-Ro ships, barge carriers, tankers), fishing vessels, factory ships, supply ships, Cable ships, ice breakers, research vessels, warships, hydrofoils, air cushion vehicles, small pleasure crafts (yachts, ketches, etc) , Some physical fundamentals-Archimedes principle, laws of floatation stability and trim, forces acting on a ship (static condition in waves and during launching) The ship’s form-main dimensions.

UNIT – 2: Lines Plan and Hydrostatics 9

Lines Plan – fairing process – table of offsets, Integration rules – Trapezoidal rule; Simpson’s rules (1-4-1, 1-3-3-1 and 5-8-1 rule); 6 ordinate rules; Tchebycheff’s rule; Areas, volumes and moments, Bonjean calculations and curves, sectional area curves, Hydrostatic calculations and curves. Buoyancy and weight of the ship

UNIT – 3: Basics of Ship Stability 9

Introduction :- Potential energy and equilibrium; Stability of ships – stable and unstable conditions (including submerged vessels); Stability terms; Equivolume inclinations – shift of C.O.B. due to inclinations, C.O.B curve in lateral plane, metacentre, pro-meta centre and metacentric radius, metacentric height, metacentric curve, surface of flotation, curve of flotation, righting moment and lever; Moments due to wind, shift of cargo, passengers, turning and non-symmetrical accumulation of ice; Effect of superstructure on stability.

UNIT – 4: Transverse Stability 9

Transverse stability: – Form and weight stability – stability functions

a) Initial stability – GM0, GZ at small angles of inclinations, wall sided ships; Stability due to addition, removal and transference (horizontal, lateral and vertical) of weight, suspended weight and free surface of liquids; Stability while docking and grounding; Inclining experiment.

b) Large angle stability -Diagram of statical stability (GZ-curve), characteristic of GZ-curve, static equilibrium criteria; Methods for calculating the GZ-curve (Krylov, Prohaska, etc.); Cross curves of stability; Dynamical stability – diagram of dynamical stability, dynamical stability criteria.

UNIT – 5: Longitudinal and Damage Stability 9

c) Longitudinal stability – trim, longitudinal metacentre, longitudinal centre of flotation, moment to change trim, trimming moment; trim calculations – addition, removal and transference of weight, change of density of water

d) Damage stability – deterministic and probabilistic approach. Stability in waves. Recommendations of classification societies and governmental authorities – Intact and damage stability rules.

Total Hours 45

Textbooks:

- Capt. H.Subramaniam, Ship Stability Vol- I, II and III, Vijaya Publications
- Tupper, E.C.;Introduction to Naval Architecture, Butterworth-Heinemann, UK, 1998.

Reference Books: - Lewis,E.U.; “Principles of Naval Architecture”, (2nd Rev.), SNAME, New Jersey, U.S.A.
- Rawson & Tupper; Basic Ship Theory

## Fundamentals of Offshore Structures

UNIT I Historical Development of Offshore Structures 9

Introduction – Definition of Offshore Structures – Historical Developments – Deepwater challenges, Functions of Offshore Structures, selection of Offshore Structure and its Configurations, Bottom Supported Fixed Structures, Complaint Structures, Floating Structures – Novel offshore design – Field development concepts

UNIT II Load and Responses 9

Introduction, Gravity Load, Hydrostatic Loads, Resistance Loads, Current loads on Structures, Current Drag and Lift Force, Steady and Dynamic Wind Loads on Structures, Wave Loads on Structures, Varying Wind Load, Impulse loads and Introduction to design

UNIT III Topside Facilities and Layout 9

Introduction – General layout Considerations – Areas and Equipment – Deck Impact Loads – Deck Placement and Configuration – Float over Deck Installation – Helipad – Platform Crane – Living quarters – Oil and gas treatment – Oil and gas storage, offloading and export – Utility and process support systems – Drilling facilities

UNIT IV Offshore Installation 9

Introduction – Installation of Fixed Platform Substructures – Floating Structures – Foundations – Subsea Templates – loadouts – transportation – Platform Installation Methods and installation criteria – Installation of Pipelines and Risers

UNIT V: Materials for Offshore Applications 9

Material for Construction-Structural Steel, Topside Materials, Advanced Composite materials, Corrosion Control, Material Reliability and Monitoring and Fracture Control

Total hours: 45

Textbooks

- Dawson, T.H., “Offshore Structural Engineering”, Prentice Hall, 1983
- B.C Gerwick, Jr. “Construction of Marine and Offshore Structures”, CRC Press, Florida, 2000.
- Subrata K Ckakrabarti, “Handbook of Offshore Engineering”, Vol 1, Vol 2, Elsevier Publishers, 1st edition, 2005.

Reference Books - API RP 2A., “Planning Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms”, API
- McClelland, B & Reifel, M.D., “Planning & Design of fixed Offshore Platforms”, VanNostrand, 1986
- Graff, W.J., “Introduction to Offshore Structures”, Gulf Publ. Co. 1981.
- Reddy, D.V & Arockiasamy, M., “Offshore Structure” Vol.1 & 2, Kreiger Publ. Co 1991

Morgan, N., “Marine Technology Reference Book”, Butterworths, 1990

## Marine Engineering

Unit – I: Main Propulsion Machinery – 1 9

Marine diesel engines -general engine principles, Low speed and medium speed diesel engines, Fuels, fuel oil system, Scavenging and turbo charging. Starting and revising systems, controls and safety devices, Lubrication, Lubricants and lub oil systems, cooling systems torque and power measurement. Marine boilers types, fire tube and water, tube boilers, boiler arrangements, steam to steam boilers, double evaporation boilers, exhaust gas heat exchangers, auxiliary steam plant systems, exhaust gas boilers, composite boilers

Unit – 2: Main Propulsion Machinery – 2 9

Marine Steam turbines -Types of turbines, compounding – reheat turbines, turbine construction, rotors, blades, casing, gland scaling, diagrams, nozzles, bearings etc. Lubrication systems, expansion arrangements, control, gearing operating procedure. Marine gas turbines – fundamentals of G.T, Structure of gas turbines, gearing, operational features, controls, gearing, combined cycles.

Unit – 3: Special Types 9

Nuclear propulsion -physical principles of the operation of nuclear reactors – use of nuclear propulsion on sea going vessels. Electric Propulsion, Dynamic Positioning, Automation of ship propulsion plants, Maintenance requirements and reliability of propulsion plants, Engine dynamics, torsional vibration of engine and shafting, axial shaft vibration, critical speeds engine rating, rating corrections, trial tests etc. Relationship of engine to the propeller, classification society rules on engine construction.

Unit – 4: Auxiliary Machineries 9

Air compressors, boilers, heat exchangers, cooling, evaporators, distillers, waste heat recovery systems, hot water, drinking water, cooling water and sea water systems. Fuel systems, lubricating oil system filters, coolers, centrifuges, purifiers and clarifiers. Bilge and Ballast systems – Sewage disposal, Oily water separator, incinerator, galley equipment, RO plant. Introduction to Marine pumps and piping – types, materials, colour coding etc. Rudder and steering gear, anti-roll devices.

Unit – 5: Design Considerations 9

Considerations in Engine room arrangement, marine engineering considerations in ship design, and design and selection considerations of marine machinery. Safety systems firefighting equipment Instrumentation & control, watch keeping system UMS classes. Air compressors, heat exchangers and engine mounting, study of different types of marine engines available in the world market.

Total hours: 45

Textbook

1) Harrington; Marine Engineering, SNAME Publications

2) Pounder,C.C.; Marine Diesel Engines, Newnen-Butterworths, London.

3) Khetagurov, M.; Marine Auxiliary Machinery and Systems, Peace Publishers, Moscow.

Reference

1) Taylor, D.A.; Introduction to Marine Engineering

2) Reed’s Marine Engineering for Naval Architect

3) Marine Pumps and Piping Systems

## Theory of Structures

UNIT I Continuous beams and strain energy method 9

Continuous beams – Chaperon’s three-moment equation, Moment distribution method, Torsion of non-circular sections, shear center of simple cross sections. Strain energy method-principle of virtual work, flexibility method, stiffness method, strain energy and complementary energy, Castiglione’s theorems. Introduction of theory of plasticity.

UNIT II Matrix methods 9

The Matrix displacement approach, Introduction, Stiffness matrix of a bar, element subjected to Axial Force, Co-ordinate transformations, Global stiffness matrix, application to Pin-jointed frames, stiffness matrix of a beam element, application to continuous beams.

UNIT III Theory of thin plates 9

Introduction to theory of thin plates, Pure bending of plates, Small deflection analysis of laterally loaded plates, Boundary conditions, Naview solution, Lavy’s` solution. Analysis of stiffened plates – orthotropic plate model and other methods. Design of plates for large deflections and permanent set – design of lifting structures such as cranes.

UNIT IV Design of tubular members 9

Design of tubular members for pure and combined stress resultants – brief introduction to optimal member design. Design principles of tubular joints – punching shear and ultimate strength concepts fracture mechanics and fatigue.

UNIT V Design for dynamic loads 9

Design for dynamic loads Vibrations of continuous systems – vibration of strings and rods – vibration of beams – vibration of shafts.

Total hours: 45

TEXT BOOKS

- Timoshenko & Young; Theory of structures, McGraw Hill Publications.
- Ramamirutham, “Strength of materials”, Dhanpat Rai publishing company (p) limited, new delhi, 17th edition, 2008.
- Krishna Raju & Gururaja; Advanced Mechanics of solids and structures, Narosa Publications.

REFERENCE BOOKS - Reddy, C.S; Basic Structural Analysis, Tata-McGraw Hill Publications.Timoshenko& Young; Theory of plates, McGraw Hill Publications.
- RD Blevins; Flow induced Vibrations, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990.
- BC Gerwick, Jr. Construction of marine and offshore structures, CRC Press, 2000.
- N Barltrop, Floating Structures, A Guide for Design and Analysis, OPL , 1998

## Hydrodynamic, Resistance & Propulsion of Ships

Unit-1 Marine Hydrodynamics 9

Classification of water waves, Wave Characteristics, Wave theories, Water particle kinematics, Wave deformation, Wave analysis, Wave forecasting methods, Wave forces – Morison equation, Wave currents and its classification, Scour and other effects of currents.

Unit-2 Components of ship resistance 9

Dimensional analysis. Laws of comparison – geometrical, dynamical and kinematical similarity, Newton’s, Froude’s and Reynold’s law, model-ship correlation. Viscous resistance – turbulent plate friction and plate resistance, viscous pressure resistance, separation and resistance due to separation, influence of curvature of the ship’s hull, form factor, hull roughness and its influence on frictional resistance Wave making resistance – pressure resistance, ship wave system, interference effects, theoretical calculation of wave making resistance, wave breaking resistance, bulbous bows and their effects

Unit-3 Determination of resistance 9

Model testing and exploration, Series test results – residuary resistance, effect of hull form on resistance, Taylor series, Series 60, B S R A series, S S P A series, etc.; statistical analysis of resistance data, Guldhammer Harvald’s and Danckwardt’s method. Resistance of planing crafts multihull vessels, hovercrafts, hydrofoils, barges and convoy of barges. Air and wind resistance, Resistance of appendages, Added resistance in waves; Resistance in restricted waterways – resistance in shallow water, resistance in canals

Unit-4 Propeller as a thrust producing mechanism 9

Historical development; Screw propeller – screw propeller geometry, sections, propeller drawing, construction details. Types of propellers and other propulsion devices, Propeller theories – Momentum theory, Blade element theory, Circulation theory. Interaction between Hull and propeller Wake and wake fraction, Resistance augment and thrust deduction factor, propulsive efficiency in open water and behind conditions, hull efficiency, quasi propulsive coefficient, transmission efficiency; Powering. Cavitation and its effects and prevention.

Unit-5 Design of propellers 9

Propeller families and series; Open water tests, Presentation of data, Kt-Kq diagrams, Design charts -Bp-δ, ΤJ PJ charts, Use of charts in propeller design and performance study; Selection of engines, diesel engine characteristics. Propeller strength Materials and their qualities, strength calculation. Model testing for resistance and propulsion – tank testing facilities, testing, prediction of resistance from model tests, extrapolation, Froude’s concept, laminar influence and tank wall effect, comparison of resistance prediction with results of full-scale trials Laws of comparison, open water diagram, self-propulsion tests.

Textbooks

- Lewis,E.U.; “Principles of Naval Architecture”, (2nd Rev.), SNAME, New Jersey, U.S.A.
- Barnaby K.; Basic Naval Architecture, Marine Propellers and Propulsion 2007, Second Edition, J S Carlton, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN: 978-07506-8150-6
- Marine Powering Prediction and Propulsors by Neil Bose (2008), The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, ISBN: 0-939773-65-1.

Reference Books

1) Basic Ship Theory Vol II, Rawson and Tupper, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001, ISBN 0 7506 5396 5

2) Principles of Naval Architecture: Ship Resistance & Flow by Lars Larsson & Hoyte C. Raven (2010), The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers ISBN 978-0-939773-76-3

3) Practical Ship Design, DGM Watson, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Book Series 2002, ISBN: 0-08-042999-8

4) Practical Ship Hydrodynamics 2000, Volker Bertram, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0 7506 4851 1

5) Hydrodynamics in Ship Design 1957 Vol I, II, III, H E Saunders, The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers

6) Hydrodynamics of High-Speed Vehicles 2005, OM Faltinsen, Cambridge University Press, ɪsʙɴ-13 978-0-521-84568-7

7) Marine Hydrodynamics, Office of Naval Research Fluid Mechanics Program, MIT

## Strength of Ships

Unit-1 Introduction to functions and analysis of ship structures: 9

Functions of ship structure, the forces acting up on a ship at sea, static forces, dynamic forces. The distortion of ship’s structure. Application of theory and experience. Limitations of the theory. Distinction between strength and stiffness of hull girder. Forces and moments acting on ship’s structures in regular waves in head seas, and oblique seas. Nature of stresses in ship’s hull when ship is floating in still water and on a wave. Modelling of ship’s’ structures including general remarks on structural strength. Three-dimensional analysis of a ship structures (elementary treatment only). Assumptions and simplification of longitudinal strength calculations. Introduction to the use of probability theory in the assessment of longitudinal strength.

Unit – 2: Longitudinal strength of hull girder and ultimate strength 9

Modelling of ship hull Girder as a beam. Assumed form of wave systems. Conditions of Hogging and Sagging. The buoyancy curves. The weight curves. Distributions of dead weight items. The Load, shearing force and bending moment curves. Characteristics of shear force and bending moment curves. Still water bending moment, wave bending moment and total bending moment. Bending theory applied to ship structures and its limitations. Calculations of hull girder section modulus and hull deflection. Dynamic effects on loads acting on the hull due to ship motions and wave action such as slamming. Thermal effects on hull girder. Stresses in the inclined condition. Application of plastic theory to ship structures, stress-strain diagram, calculation of plastic neutral axis and plastic moment. Ultimate strength of a simply supported beam and a fixed ended beam. Ultimate longitudinal strength of a ship.

Unit – 3: Transverse strength of hull girder and ship hull material 9

Transverse loads on ship’s hull such as hydrostatic loads, weights, wave loads, racking, and torsion. Effect of hatches and other openings. Strain energy method, moment distribution method and comparison of the two methods, Influence of bracketed connections. Manufacture of steel. Requirement of ship building quality steels, high strength steels, Aluminum alloys and glass reinforced plastics, Mechanical properties and chemical composition of structural materials, Testing of steels such as tensile test bend test and impact test. Brittle fracture. Steels for very low temperature applications

Unit – 4: Strength of bulk heads, decks and tank tops, foundations, super structure, deck houses and structural discontinuities and local strength problem 9

Types of bulkheads and loads on bulkheads, Strength analysis of bulkheads. Types of foundations- loads on foundations and Strength analysis. Generation of loads on superstructure. Factors affecting superstructure efficiency. Effective superstructure. Strength of Aluminum alloy superstructure. Strength analysis of decks and tank tops. Determination of scantlings of superstructure decks based on simple bending theory. Strength of deckhouses, structural discontinuities such as holes in plates, notches in beams and girders, deck openings, ends of superstructure, ends of girders and other structural members. Stress concentration due to various structural discontinuities mentioned above. Applications of three-moment theorem to Ship structures. Use of strain energy method for solution of bending moment problems and redundant structural problems

Unit – 5: Theory of thin plates, buckling of structures, composite construction, grillage analysis, calculation of scantlings as per rules 9

Thin plate theory and solution for different boundary conditions. Application of plain stress theory to ship structural problems. Case of a plate acted upon by a concentrated load; Buckling of plates. Influence of stiffeners (longitudinal and \ or transverse) on the buckling stress of ship’s plating. Bending and membrane stresses in plates (application to bulkheads, shell plates etc.) Composite construction- Two materials with same elastic modulus. Two materials of different elastic Modulii. Bending of composite beam. Introduction to Grillage. Analysis of simple Grillage., Scantling calculations according to the rules of classification societies.

Total hours: 45

Textbooks

- Lewis,E.U.; Principles of Naval Architecture, (2nd Rev.), SNAME, New Jersey, U.S.A.
- Owen Hughes; Ship Structural Design
- Muckle,W.; Strength of Ships.

Reference Books - Ship Structural Design – A Rationally Based, Computer-Aided, Optimisation Approach, 1995, Hughes OF John Wiley and Sons
- Ship Structural Analysis and Design 2010, OF Hughes and JK Paik, The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, ISBN 978-0-939773-78-3
- Structural Design of Seagoing Ships, Barabanov, MIR Publishers
- Basic Ship Theory Vol II, Rawson and Tupper, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001, ISBN 0 7506 5396 5
- Principles of Naval Architecture Series: Strength of Ships and Ocean Structures by Alaa Mansour and Don Liu, Edited by J. Randolph Paulling (2008), The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers ISBN 0-939773-66-x
- Principles of Naval Architecture Series: Vibration by William S. Vorus Edited by J. Randolph Paulling (2010), The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, ISBN: ISBN 978-0-939773-75-6
- Practical Ship Design, DGM Watson, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Book Series 2002, ISBN: 0-08-042999-8

## Marine Electrical Technology

UNIT I AC Motors and Starters 9

Understand the Principle of operation of a direct on-line starter (DOL) starter, Star delta starter, autotransformer starter, Understand the need and means for motor protection. AC Motors Understand the construction and characteristics of a squirrel cage induction motor Understand the principle of operation of a single-phase motor.

UNIT II AC Generator 9

Understand the construction and principle of operation of a three-phase ac generator, ac regulation on ac generator, ac generator active and reactive load sharing, generator synchronizing procedure (SIMULATOR).

UNIT III Switch Board 9

Understand the function of the main switchboard, need and methods ac system protection. Neutral System Understand the types of neutral systems and earth fault. Emergency Supplies-The operation and maintenance of commonly used batteries on board ship. The operation of the emergency generator. Insulation Resistance-Understand insulation resistance measurement.

UNIT IV DC Generator 9

Understand the construction and principle of operation of a dc generator. Dc Motor-Understand the construction and operation of dc motor. Ship Lightning-Understand different types of lightings installed onboard ships. 3 Phase Ac System-Understand principle of 3 phase alternating voltage generation.

UNIT V Electrical Installations and Safety 9

Understand hazards of live electrical systems and safe electrical practice. Fuse protection, general maintenance. Instrumentation -Temperature, Pressure, Torque, Rpm measuring devices – methods working Principles.

Total hours: 45

Textbooks

- Elstan A. Fernandez, Marine Electrical Technology, SPD Publishers, 4th Edition, 2008.
- John C. Payne, “The Marine Electrical and Electronics Bible” Sheridon House Inc. 2001

Reference Books - Dennis t. Hall, “Practical Marine Electrical Engineering”, Witherby Publishers, 2nd edition, 1999.
- H. D. McGeorge, “Marine Electrical Equipment and Practice”, Newnes, 1993

## Finite Element Analysis

Unit I Introduction 9

Concepts of FEM – steps involved – merits and demerits – energy principles Discrimination – Raleigh – Ritz method of functional approximation. Principles of Elasticity: Stress equations – strain displacement relationships in matrix form plane stress – plane strain and axi-symmetric bodies of revolution with axi-symmetric loading.

Unit II One dimensional and Two-Dimensional FEM 9

One dimensional FEM: Stiffness matrix for beam and bar elements – shape functions foe ID elements.

Two-dimensional FEM: Different types of elements for plane stress and plane strain analysis displacement models – generalized coordinates – shape functions – convergent and compatibility requirements – geometric invariance – natural coordinate system – area and volume coordinates – generation of element stiffness and nodal load matrices

Unit III Isometric elements 9

Concept – different Isoparametric elements for 2D analysis -formulation of 4-noded and 8-noded Isoparametric quadrilateral elements – Lagrange elements – serendipity elements. Axi Symmetric Analysis: bodies of revolution – axi symmetric modeling – strain displacement relationship – formulation of axi symmetric elements.

Unit IV Analysis of Plates 9

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis of Plates: basic theory of plate bending – thin plate theory –

stress resultants – Mindlin’s approximations – formulation of 4-noded isoperimetric quadrilateral plate

element – Shell Element.

Unit V Applications of FEM 9

Introduction to non – linear analysis – basic methods – application to Special structures- Three-dimensional FEM: Different 3-D elements-strain-displacement relationship –formulation of hexahedral and Isoparametric solid element.

Total hours: 45

Textbooks:

- Robert D.Cook, David S, Malkus and Michael E. Plesha, “Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis” Wiley, 1989.
- OC Zienkiewicz, “Finite element Methods” Butterworth Heinemann, 5th edition, 2002
- GS Krishna Murthy, “Finite element analysis, theory and programming” 2nd edition, Mc-graw Hill publishing.

Reference Books: - Tirupathi Chandra Patila and Belugunudu, “Introduction to Finite elements in engineering” Pearson Education Limited, 2014
- JN Reddy, “Introduction to Finite element Method”, McGraw-Hill, 2006.

## Advanced Offshore Engineering

Unit I Introduction of Oil and gas field 9

Oil and gas field development Options: Platform types, marine riser systems, current design trends and deep-water challenges, Upstream, Midstream, Downstream, Exploration, Appraisal, Development, Production, Economics

Unit II Riser systems: 9

Flexible pipe structure and material, typical configurations, top tensioned vertical risers, hybrid risers. Flow assurance: multi-phase flow, deposition of solids, thermal management, corrosion. Riser analysis: governing equations, boundary conditions, natural frequency.

Unit III Mooring system 9

Mooring lines -Typical mooring configuration, material and construction, anchors and ancillary equipment, static mooring analysis – mooring and anchoring system for different offshore structure TLP, spar, semisubmersibles, drill ships.

Unit IV Vortex induced vibration 9

Vortex induced vibration: VIV Parameters, drag, lift, vortex shedding, surface roughness, Strouhal number, VIV assessment, fatigue life calculation, Simplified VIV Analysis Examples of VIV Analysis

Unit V Remotely operated vehicles 9

Remotely operated vehicles: ROV categories- Micro, mini, general, Light work class, Heavy work class, Trenching & Burial, AVUs ROV-handling systems, construction and materials, navigation and control, Remote Piloting, Manipulator arms, HD and 4k Video Cameras, Tooling Solutions.

Total Hours: 45

Textbooks

- Handbook of Offshore Engineering, Subrata K. Chakrabarthi, Vol I, Vol II, USA, 2005
- BC Grewick, Jr. Construction of marine and offshore structure, CRC Press, 2000.
- RD Blevins, Flow induced vibrations, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990.
- N Barltrop, Floating structures: A Guide for design and analysis, OPL, 1998.

Reference Books - EE Allimendinger, Submersible vehicle systems design. SNAME, 1990.
- HO Bordeaux, Buoy engineering, John Wiley, 1975.

## Ship Design

Unit-1 Introduction 9

General aspects of Marine Activities, Transportation of cargoes, Marine services & Operations, Marine Industries; Engineering Economics in Ship Design – Economic criteria, Initial cost, Operating cost, RFR; Owners requirements

Unit-2 Methods of ship design 9

Design using basic type ships, Design using coefficients, Design using iteration methods; design spiral; design categories (dead-weight carrier, capacity carrier, linear dimension ship).Ship parameters – displacement, displacement coefficient, displacement equation, volume equation, solution of the cubic equation

Unit-3 Ship dimension 9

Length, breadth, depth, draught, form coefficients; Shape of the hull. Mass estimation lightship mass – steel mass, outfit mass, engine plant mass; dead weight. Design of hull form – conventional method of lines, distortion of existing forms; stem and stern contours, Bulbous Bow.

Unit-4 General arrangement and Stability Booklet 9

Subdivision of the ship’s hull and erections, arrangement of spaces, arrangement of tanks, superstructure and deckhouses, arrangement of engine plants, Cargo handling capacity, hold capacity and stowage factor, Stability – stability booklet, IMO Regulations, Checks on stability, trim. Tonnage measurement – international, Suez, Panama. Influence of stability, resistance and propulsion and ship hydrodynamics factors on ship design

Unit-5 Auxiliary systems 9

Marine system and Offshore Platform Equipment design: Bilge and Ballast system, Ventilation system, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration system, Berth and Mooring systems, Anchor handling system for ships and shore structures, Storage and Offloading, Firefighting systems, Stern gear, Steering gear, Lifesaving equipment.

Total Hours: 45

Textbooks

- Lewis, E.U; ‘Principles of Naval Architecture’ (2nd Rev.) Vol. III, 1989, SNAME New York
- Schneekluth, H; Ship Design for Efficiency and Economy, Butterworths, 1987
- Taggart; Ship Design and Construction, SNAME

Reference Books - Practical Ship Design, DGM Watson, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Book Series 2002, ISBN: 0-08-042999-8
- Risk-Based Ship Design – Methods, Tools and Applications, Apostolos Papanikolaou et al, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009, ISBN: 978-3-540-89041-6,
- Ship Design for Efficiency and Economy 2nd Ed, H. Schneekluth and V. Bertram, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0 7506 4133 9
- Ship Design & Construction, Vol I and II (2003, 2004), The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, ISBN 0-939773-40-6, ISBN 0-939773-41 -4
- Basic Ship Theory Vol I and II, Rawson and Tupper, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001, ISBN 0 7506 5396 5
- Engineering For Ship Production, Thomas Lamb,1986, The University of Michigan
- PNA Series, SNAME 2010.
- Management of Marine Design, Stian Erichsen, Butterworths, ISBN 0-408-03237-5
- Marine Vehicle Weight Engineering, Society of Allied Weight Engineers 2005, ISBN 9-9999-9999-9
- Maritime Economics, 2nd ed, Martin Stopford, 2003, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-15309-3
- MARPOL Consolidated edition 2006, IMO Sales number: IC520E
- Rickmers standard for stowage and securing of project cargo, 2003, Rickmers Linie GmBH and Cie, Hamburg

## Marine Materials and Metal Joining Techniques

Unit-1 Introduction 9

Definition, Historical Background, Development in Welding, Science of Welding, Welding Metallurgy: Introduction, Structure of metals, Crystallization of a pure metal, Phase transformation in Iron Carbon diagram, Weldability of steel, Presence of alloy elements, Effect of welding process & nature of base metal, Preheating, HAZ.

Unit-2 Types of Welding 9

Gas metal arc welding – Process, different metal transfers, power source, electrodes, shielding gas, uses of Gas in metal arc welding, mechanised system in shipbuilding Introduction, philosophy of automation in welding, different welding systems in shipyards, Welding in production shop – SMAW, GTAW, EBW, LBW, SAW, Gravity welding, Auto contact welding, CO2 Welding, Friction Welding. Principle, process & applications

Unit-3 Panel line production 9

One-sided welding – SAW, MIG welding, welding of stiffeners, Welding in building berth External welding on the berth, Electroslag welding, Electro gas welding, One-sided welding (Flux Asbestos backing, Ceramic backing etc.); Internal welding on the berth, Comparison of European, Japanese & Indian Welding Process

Unit-4 Welding Problems & Defects 9

Welding problems Weld defects, Distortion, Accuracy control; Non-destructive tests.

Welding quality control Welding standards, Welding procedure qualification, Effect of variables on qualification of Welders & operators, Test reports, Acceptance standards, Quality assurance and audit, Consumable classification & coding. Introduction to Robotic Welding.

Unit-5 Adhesive Bonding as a joining technique 9

Structural Adhesive Bonding as a joining technique – Adhesives and adherents, bonding methods and joint design, analysis of joints for strength, surface preparation for steel, aluminium and other materials used for marine structures.

Total Hours: 45

Textbooks

- Davies, A.C.; Welding, Cambridge University Press, Low Price Edition, 1996.
- Richard, Little; Welding Technology, McGraw Hill Publications, New Delhi.
- Joe Lawrance; Welding Principles for Engineers, PrenticeHall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
- Welding Handbook – Vol.:1,2,3; American Welding Society
- O.P. Khanna; A Textbook of Welding Technology, Dhanpat Rai & Sons.

Reference Books - Rossi, Welding Technology, McGraw Hill.
- Koenigsberger and Adaer, Welding Technology, Macmillan.
- Howard B Cary., Modern Welding Technology, 4th edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, 1997.
- AWS Welding Handbooks, AWS, New York, 1995.

## Sea Keeping and Maneuvering

UNIT I Coordinate system 9

Ship in Regular Waves – Coordinate Systems, Equations and Motion – uncoupled Heave, Pitch and Roll; Coupled Heave and Pitch – Hydrodynamic Forces – Radiation Forces – Strip Theory. Probabilistic Approach – Introduction to Random Response Theory Random Response of linear, Systems under wave Loading, Directional Spectra for Waves – Probabilistic Design Criteria – General Motion Analysis of Floating Bodies, Time and Frequency Domain Approach.

UNIT II Dynamic effects of ship in seaway 9

Ship in Seaway and Dynamic effects – Linear Superposition, Response Amplitudes Operator, Pitch and Roll in irregular Waves, Local and Relative Motions shipping of green water, Slamming, Yawing and Broading, Added Resistance, Powering in Waves, Wave Loads.

UNIT III Ship motion control 9

Ship Motion Control – Control of Roll – Passive Stabilizers (Bilge keel, Sails, Free Surface Tanks, U-tanks, moving weight) Controlled – Passive Stabilizers, Active Stabilizers (fin, gyro, active-tank) Rudder stabilization, Control of Pitch.

UNIT IV Sea keeping performance criteria 9

Sea keeping Performance and Design Aspects – Sea – keeping performance criteria and ship seaways responses, factors affecting pitching, heaving and rolling, guidelines for design.

UNIT V Dynamics of floating system 9

Dynamics of floating systems: Equations of motion for SDOF Systems, Time and Frequency domain solutions – Oscillators of Floating Bodies, Added Mass and Moment of Inertia, and Hydrodynamic damping – Exciting Forces and moments due to Waves. Strip theory for Slender Bodies – Symmetric and Unsymmetric Coupled Motions Effect of Forward Speed – 3D Effects – Dynamic Effects – Roll and Pitch Damping Devices.

Total hours: 45

Text Books

- Lewis E.U; “Principles of Naval Architecture” (2nd Rev) Vol. III, 1989, SNAME, Newyork.
- Bhattacharya.R; “Dynamics of Marine Vehicles” 1978, Wiley Inter Science, Newyork.

Reference Books - Lamb.H; “Hydrodynamics”, 1945 Cambridge University Press, UK.
- Newmann.J.N; “Marine Hydrodynamics”.MIT Press, USA ,1977
- Newmann J.N; “Theory of Ship Motions Advanced Applied Mechanics”, 1980
- Price W.G & Bishop R.E, “Probability Theory of Ship Dynamics”, Chapman & Hall, London1982.

## Structural Design of Ships

Unit-1 Introduction 9

Historical review, the structure of wooden ships. Transition from wood to steel. The structure of riveted ships and welded ships. Riveting and welding in ship building. Structural changes from riveted to welded ships. General mid-ship section structural arrangements for different types of ships- general cargo ship, oil tanker-single and double hull, bulk carrier, container ship, tug, trawler, passenger ship, cross channel ferry.

Unit-2 Structural parts, functions and classification rules 9

Different structural elements- keel, transverse frames, longitudinal frames, web frames, vertical keelson, beams, girders, floors, brackets, pillars, stem bars, stern frames, bulkhead stiffeners, platings etc.-their structural configuration, design features and functional aspects. Assembly of various structural elements into the structural parts of the ship such as double bottom structure, side shell, single bottom structure, bulkhead structure, deck structure, aft-end structure, fore-end structure, super structure etc. Structural design as per classification society rules. Use of relevant standards in structural design.

Unit-3 Structural Design of Bottom, Side Shell, Bulkhead, deck, fore-end, aft-end structures 9

Bottom structures, structural design of single bottom and double bottom structures, their structural configuration and determination of dimensions and scantlings of stiffeners, frames, longitudinal, inner and outer bottom plating, Shell plating and framing-layout of strakes, spacing of framing, shell expansion plan, longitudinal and transverse frames, ordinary and web frames, end connections of frames, Bulk heads-structural arrangement of bulk heads, longitudinal and transverse bulk heads, determination of scantlings and sizes of structural parts of bulkheads, plating and stiffening of bulk heads, in flat, corrugated, Swaged and non-water tight bulk heads, connection of bulkheads with side shell, decks etc., partial bulk heads. Decks – deck plating, subdivision of strakes and structural arrangements of longitudinal and transverse stiffeners. Determination of scantling, end-connections of deck stiffeners. Fore-end structure-stem profiles, plating and stiffening of the fore end structures, panting arrangement, stem design-built up or cast, bulbous bow construction, details of arrangements, chain locker, hawse pipes, paint stores, forward collision bulkheads, determination of scantlings. Aft-End structure-stern profiles, plating and stiffening of aft-end structure, stern frame – built up or cast, details of stern tube, bossings, shaft struts etc. Different types of rudder configurations and stern fittings for these rudder types. Nozzles and propeller arrangements. Determination of structural scantlings.

Unit-4. Structural Design of Engine Room, Superstructure, Cargo Handling Arrangements, Hatches, Special Ships, Welded Structures and Computer Applications 9

Engine Room – Horizontal subdivision of engine room, platforms, decks, shaft tunnel and recesses, Engine casting, foundations of Diesel engines, turbines, boilers, auxiliary machinery. Static and dynamic loads in engine room. Structural design of engine room and determination of scantlings. Superstructure – Structural design and details of openings, expansion joints etc

Determination of scantlings, Construction and design of cargo handling systems and equipment – loads on derricks, masts and rigging. Determination of scantlings. Deck cranes –details of installation and structural arrangements necessary. Hatch covers – loads acting on hatch covers, various types of hatch cover and their structural design. Structural design of special types of ships – fishing vessels, tugs, tankers, dredgers, icebreakers, and submarines. Stress Concentration and fatigue in ship structures. Computer applications in structural design. Various methods of joining structural parts and elements. Design of welded structures. Problem of fracture in welded structures. Design and strength of butt – welds, fillet welds, Tee and corner joints, bracketed connections. Structural fire protection

Unit-5 Hull Vibration of Ships 9

Flexural vibrations of a beam. Free and forced vibrations, vibration of undamped spring-mass system, damped vibrations. The exciting forces on hull of ships, modes of hull vibration. Calculation of hull frequencies – factors influencing frequency, empirical formulae for hull frequency estimation. Analytical methods for calculation of hull modes (elementary treatment only). The Stodala’s interpolation method. Propeller exciting forces. Damping – Types of damping. Special local vibration problems – Rudder vibration, cavitation, stress and vibration levels, human reaction to vibration. General methods of reducing vibrations. Devices for reducing main hull vibration. Synchronising devices for twin – screw ships, rotating weight neutralisers, Kurt nozzles.

Total hours: 45

Textbooks:

- Ship Construction by D.J. Eyers

Reference Books: - Strength of Ship Structures by W. Muckle
- Principles of Naval Architecture by Ed.V. Lewis
- Ship Design and Construction by R.Taggart

## Structural Design of offshore Structures

UNIT I Planning of Offshore Structure design 9

Planning of Offshore Structures – Design criteria and procedures – WSD and Load Resistance Factor Design – Design loads – dead loads and live loads – load combinations – Determination of wave, wind and current loads.

UNIT II Design of plates and beams 9

Design criteria of plates and beams – considerations – Design of tension members and compression members – Materials used for plates and beams- Analysis of loading on beams and plates, End fitting effects in column testing, cripping strength test.

UNIT III Design of cylindrical members 9

Design of cylindrical members – axial compression, biaxial bending and combined loads; Hydrostatic implosion, effects of external hydrostatic pressure, local buckling, the residual stresses, Ultimate strength, monotonic loading behavior and strength.

UNIT IV Design of Tubular joints 9

Design of Tubular joints – Ultimate static strength formulas for welded tubular joints, Punching shear method and calculation of allowable joint capacity; stress concentration factor, Fatigue analysis and Design – SN curve method.

UNIT V Pile Design 9

Pile Design – International standard and recommendations, Pile driveablility, Pile driving monitoring, Pile Capacity for axial bearing loads and axial pull out loads; Soil reaction for axially loaded piles and laterally loaded piles; Structural Design of piles.

Total Hours: 45

Textbooks

- S.K. Chakrabarti, “Handbook of Offshore Engineering”, Elsevier Publications 2005.
- Dawson T.H. , “Offshore Structural Engineering” Printice Hall, 1983.

Reference Books - API RP 2A WSD 1993
- API RP 2A LRFD 2000

## Dynamics of Offshore Structures

Unit I Overview 9

Basic features of dynamic loading and response – models for dynamic analysis – lumped mass, generalized displacements and finite element models. Formulation of equation of motion, principle of virtual displacement and Hamilton’s principle – Degrees of freedom – Translational and rotational systems – mass moment of inertia

Unit II Solution to equation of motion 9

Free vibration of single degree of freedom system: – Solution of equation of motion, undraped free vibration – Damped free vibration, critically damped, under damped and over damped systems, Negative damping. Single degree of freedom system – Response:- Response to harmonic loading, Undamped system- damped system, Response to periodic loading -Fourier series expansion of the loading- response to Fourier series loading Exponential form of Fourier series loading and response- Complex frequency transfer functions

Unit III Response to dynamic loading 9

Response to impulsive loads: – Suddenly applied load, sine wave impulse, rectangular impulse, triangular impulse, spike loading, approximate analysis Response to general dynamic loading:- Duhamel integral for undamped system – unit impulse response function numerical evaluation, response of damped system- numerical evaluation, Numerical analysis in the frequency domain, fast Fourier transform analysis.

Unit IV Multi degree of freedom system 9

Multi degree of freedom system:- Two degree of freedom system – equation of motion, characteristic equation, frequencies and mode shapes, coordinate coupling and choice of degree of freedom, orthogonality of modes, natural coordinates, superposition of natural modes , response of two degree of freedom system to initial excitation, beat phenomenon, response to harmonic excitation.

Unit V Matrix methods for dynamic analysis 9

Analysis of multi- degree of freedom system- Rayleigh – Ritz, Stodola and Holzer methods, Matrix methods for dynamic analysis, mode superposition analysis. Practical Vibration Analysis:- Determination of frequency by Rayliegh’s method. Beam flexure – selection of shape- improved Rayleigh’s method – solid interaction – dynamic behaviour of offshore towers – stochastic dynamics of offshore structures – frequency domain response – Narrow band systems, fatigue predictions – Response to wave, and earthquake loadings.

Total Hours: 45

Text Books

- Clough,R.W. and Penzien, J., “Dynamics of structures”, McGraw Hill, 1993.
- Chopra, A.K., “Dynamics of structures – Theory and Application to Earthquake Engineering”, Prentice Hall of India, 1996.
- James F. Willson, “Dynamic of offshore structure”, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Reference Books - Meirovitch L., “Elements of Vibration Analysis”, Mc.Graw Hill, 1986.
- Thomson W.T., “Theory of Vibration with Applications”, Pearson Education Inc., 1998.
- Craig, Jr. R.R., “Structural Dynamics”, John Wiley, 1981.
- Hurty, W.C. and Rubinstein M.F., “Dynamics of Structures”, Prentice Hall, 1964.

## Construction of Offshore Structures

Unit I Introduction 9

Introduction to constructability, Construction stages for offshore structure. Principle of constructability, Facilities and methods for fabrication, Launching, Assembly and Jointing Afloat, Material Selection and procedures, Access, Tolerances, Survey control, Quality control and assurance, safety, Control of construction: Feedback and Modification, Contigency Planning, Manuals, On-site Instruction Sheets, Risk and reliability Evaluation.

Unit II Construction in deep sea 9

Construction in deep sea, Considerations and Phenomena for Deep-Sea Operations, Properties of Materials for the Deep Sea, Platforms in the Deep Sea: Compliant Structures: Guyed Towers, Compliant (Flexible) Tower, Articulated Towers, Tension-Leg Platforms (TLP’s), SPARS, Ship-Shaped FPSOs, Deep-Water Moorings, Construction Operations on the Deep Seafloor, Deep-Water Pipe Laying, Seafloor Well Completions, Deep-Water Bridge Piers.

Unit III Decommissioning of offshore platform 9

Removal of Offshore Platforms, Removal of Piled Structures (Terminals, Trestles, Shallow-Water Platforms), Removal of Pile-Supported Steel Platforms, Removal of Concrete Gravity: Base Offshore Platforms, New Developments in Salvage Techniques, Removal of Harbour Structures.

Unit IV Marine structures in arctic sea floor 9

Arctic Marine Structures, Sea Ice and Icebergs, Atmospheric Conditions, Arctic Seafloor and Geotechnics, Oceanographic: Ecological Considerations, Logistics and Operations, Earthwork in the Arctic Offshore, Ice Structures.

Unit V Pipeline installation 9

Steel and Concrete Structures for the Arctic: Steel Tower Platforms, Caisson-Retained Islands, Shallow-Water Gravity-Base Caissons, Jack-Up Structures, Bottom-Founded Deep-Water Structures, Floating Structures, Well Protectors and Seafloor Templates, Deployment of Structures in the Arctic, Installation at Site, Ice Condition Surveys and Ice Management, Durability, Constructability, Pipeline Installation, Current Arctic Developments

Total Hours: 45

Textbooks

- API recommended practice 2A-WSD, “Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms” – Working Stress Design
- B.C Gerwick, “Construction of Marine and Offshore Structures”, CRC Press, Florida, 2000.
- Subrata K Ckakrabarti, “Handbook of Offshore Engineering”, Vol 1, Vol 2, Elsevier Publishers, 1st edition, 2005.

Reference Books - Libros y Manuales de Ingenieria, “Construction of Marine and Offshore Structures”, 3rd Edition, CRC Press.
- McClelland, B & Reifel, M.D., “Planning & Design of fixed Offshore Platforms”, Van Nostrand, 1986
- Graff, W.J., “Introduction to Offshore Structures”, Gulf Publ. Co. 1981.

## Ports Design and Infrastructure

Unit I: Introduction 9

Ports and harbor as the interface between the water and land infrastructure an infrastructure layer between two transport media. The fundamentals: Wave conditions inside harbor – wave disturbance & seiching Water circulation

UNIT II: Breakwater 9

Break water, jetties & quay walls; Mooring, berthing and ship motion inside the port Cargo handling

UNIT III: Design issue 9

Port layout in regards to (1) wave action (2) situation (3) navigability (AKO) Berthing Facilities

Design of port infrastructure in regards to (1) cargo handling (2) cargo storage (3) integrated transport of goods

Planning multipurpose port terminals

UNIT IV Port operations 9

Physical aspects: Allowable wave conditions for cargo handling. Wave conditions for human safety on quays and breakwater. Forecasting /nowcasting of wave & current conditions for port operations. Dredging and navigability. Hazard scenarios

Management aspects: VTMS & Management of computerized container terminal. Safety & environment (handling of fire, oil spill, rescue….) Total Quality Management in ports.

UNIT V: Sustainability 9

Global trades & port restricting / reforms. Impacts of possible climate change scenarios. Sustainable development strategies for cities and Ports

Case Studies:

Layout operations and future issues of one or two existing ports to be analyzed.

Total Hours: 45

## Subsea Engineering

Unit I Introduction to Subsea Production 9 Introduction to offshore production, Background to offshore production systems, Global oil and gas reserves and fields, Introduction to offshore exploration and drilling, Introduction to subsea engineering -Building blocks, Subsea Production Systems (SPS) and Umbilicals, Risers and Flowlines (URF)Other elements, Systems design. Types of subsea completions, Extensions to existing platforms, Tiebacks to existing production hosts. Unit II Production systems 9 Production systems for floating hosts: Floating Production, Storage and Offloading systems (FPSOs) and Floating Production Vessels (FPVs), Well to beach developments (gas fields), Flow assurance for subsea production systems – Hydraulics, Wax, Hydrates. Wellheads, Xmas Trees and Manifolds-Wellheads, Drilling subsea wells, Wellheads as part of drilling and production operations, Blowout preventers, Design and functions, Installation, Examples, Xmas trees, Types of trees, Dual bore vertical trees and spool/horizontal trees, Design and function, Suppliers, Installation, New developments (drill through and all electric trees) – Examples- Manifolds – Templates – Types of manifolds (wells clustered around manifold or template manifold) – Design and functions – Installation – Examples

Unit III Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers 9 Pipelines and flowlines – Design and functions – Route survey – Pipe selection of materials and coatings – Installation methods – Operations – Examples. Risers – Requirements and functions – Flexible dynamic risers – Design – Operation and use – Manufacture – Current developments – Hybrid riser towers – Steel catenary risers – Examples

UNIT IV Control Systems, Umbilicals and Equipment Costs 9 Subsea production control systems – Types – Electro-hydraulic multiplex control systems – Equipment and suppliers – Operations – Installations – Examples. Drilling control systems, Umbilicals – Functions – Design and manufacture – Installation – Examples. Costs of subsea equipment. Underwater Operations, Subsea Maintenance and New Technologies. Underwater engineering operations. Subsea deepwater installation activities. Inspection, maintenance and repair – Shallow water – diver operations – Deepwater diverless interventions – Remote Operated Vehicles (ROVs) – Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) Decommissioning activities – Production hosts – Subsea equipment. New technologies – Subsea pumping – Subsea processing – Requirements – Systems and examples UNIT V Subsea Reliability, Subsea Field Development Examples and Case Studies and Decommissioning Activities 9 Subsea completions – interfaces with other functions, Drilling and well completions, Production hosts – Government authorities. Examples of fields developed with subsea completions. Increased production to existing production host – North Sea fields. Tie back to production host – Gulf of Mexico fields – Norwegian fields. Subsea production to floating host – North Sea fields – Angolan fields – Australian fields – Brazilian fields. Gas fields – deepwater production to shallow water host – MCE (Gulf of Mexico) – Malampaya field (Philippines). Gas fields – well to beach – Orman Lange field (Norway) – West Delta Deep (Egypt)

Total Hours: 45

Text Books:

- Yong Bai, Qiang Bai, “Subsea engineering handbook”, 1st edition, gulf professional

publishing, 2012 - Andrew C Palmer and Roger A King, “Subsea pipeline engineering”, 2nd edition,Pennwell corporation, 2008

Reference Books: - Yong BaI, QiangBai, “Subsea pipelines and risers”, Elsevier,2005.

## Ship Conversion Technology

UNIT I Introduction 9

Basic ship parameters, existing ship stability condition, cross curves of stability, statical stability, and damage stability for the existing ships, principal particulars of the ship, general arrangement drawing of the ship including deck layout, engine room layout, accommodation layout, deck machinery for the existing ship.

UNIT II Fixation of revised length, beam and depth 9

Fixation of the revised length, beam and depth based on the cargo capacity and redesignated functions, layout general arrangement, including engine room lay out, deck plans, water tight bulk head arrangements, fore peak and aft peak arrangements, anchor and anchor handling arrangements, computation of steel weight, equipment and outfit mass, engine plant mass, weight margin etc.

UNIT III Stability calculations 9

For the revised requirement of length, breadth, and depth workout block coefficient and prismatic coefficient, mid ship section design, water plane area coefficient, revised functions of stability criteria, cross curves stability, statical stability curves, damaged stability, sea keeping maneuvering, rudder design, steering gear arrangement etc.

UNIT IV Hull design 9

Shape of sectional area curve bow and forward section forms, bulbous bow design, stern forms, conventional method of lines design, propeller clearances, propeller design, model testing, Ship yard operations, hull production, hull structural design, outfitting production (hull), outfitting production (machinery).

UNIT V Powering 9

Selection of main engine based on the revised powering calculations, revised shaft length, shaft bearings, propeller calculations, interaction between ship and propeller, ship resistance under trial conditions, additional resistance under service condition, rudder design.

Total Hours: 45

Text Books

- K J Rawson and E C Tupper “Basic Ship Theory”, Longman, 1976.
- E.C. Tupper “Introduction to Naval Architecture” by, Butter worth Heinemann
- H. Schneekluth and V. Bertram, “Ship Design for Efficiency and Economy”,2nd edition,Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998

Reference Books 2. Yasuhisa Okumoto, Yu Takeda, Masaki Mano, “Design of ship hull structures” Springer Publications, 2009 - Robert Taggart, “Ship design and construction”, SNAME Publications

## High Performance Marine Vehicles

UNIT I Introduction 9

Introduction: Basic differences between conventional and high-performance crafts – Special features – Types – Monohull – planning craft – hydrofoil craft – air cushion vehicles – Multihulls – Catamaran – trimaran – SWATH vessels – Unconventional hulls

UNIT II Hull forms 9

Hull forms – aero and hydrodynamic force – stability criteria, resistance of very slunder hulls, in particular importance of form factors, transom stern effects prediction of form factors for transom stern vessels, effect of water depth on HSE resistance.

UNIT III Resistance Prediction methods 9

Resistance prediction methods for HSE, regression, methods, potential flow methods, assumption and boundary conditions, This Ship theory, assumptions, approximation, key results, transom flow modeling, application to optimization, Introduction to Kelvin-Neumann approach, full non-linear potential flow methods, CFD, hybrid methods, Wave wake, background to problem, aspirations, for wave wake criteria, maximal way height criteria, wave energy and energy flux criteria, designing for minimal wave wake.

UNIT IV Powering and Propulsion 9

powering and propulsion – seaworthiness – manoeuvring and control – structures and materials. Comparative performance and applications – maritime operational requirements. General features of marine water jets, water jet theory, mass flow rate, Gross thrust, net thrust, momentum drag.

UNIT V Water Jet and SWATH 9

Water jet propulsion, efficiency of water jet systems and losses, cavitation consideration, preliminary design of water jets, general design characteristics of SWATH and comparison to catamaran, Sea keeping design consideration. Dynamic stability of SWATH, control design, motion sickness and comfort factors, damage stability standards

Total Hours: 45

Text Books

- Lewis, Edward V. “Principles of Naval Architecture: Resistance, Propulsion and Vibration”, Vol 2, Society of Naval architects and Marine Engineers. 1990
- Rawson, KJ and Tupper EC “Basic Ship Theory”, Longman. 1976

Reference Books - Muralidhar, K and Biswas, G “Advanced Engineering Fluid Mechanics”, Cambridge University Press, John Wiley, 1996.
- Rama Durghaiah, D, “Fluid Mechanics and Machinery”, New Age International Publishers, 2002.

## Design of floating offshore structures

Unit I Semi-Submersible

Design of semi-submersible: Functions and Configurations of Semi-submersibles, Sizing of Semi-submersibles, Initial Design Process, Heave RAO Calculation, Weight and Buoyancy Estimates, Semi-submersible Hull Structure, Design Example

Unit II Functions and Configurations of TLPs

Design of TLP: Functions and Configurations of TLPs with applications, TLP Mechanics, Sizing of TLP, Weight Estimates of TLPs, Design Example, mooring line analysis, Weight and Buoyancy Estimates, pretension in tethers, response analysis of various degrees of freedom.

Unit III Design of Spar platform

Design of Spar platform: Spar Description, Spar Riser Systems, Spar Mooring, Spar Sizing, Drilling from a Spar, Spar Construction and Installation, Mathieu instability, Roll – pitch analysis – New configurations and applications in spar design – Design Example

Unit IV Design and conversion of FPSO, FPS

Design and conversion of FPSO, FPS: FPSO Hull Design, evaluation of different hull configurations, Hull Structure, Deck Structure, reserve of strength, corrosion margin and corrosion rates, field design life, environmental conditions, estimation of conversion work package, Turret Design and Selection, Stages of conversion such as tower-yoke, calm, calm-yoke, Design Example.

Unit V Design of Drillship

Design of Drillship: Design Considerations, Loads, Initial Scantling Evaluation, Total Strength Assessment, Topside and Hull Interface Structures, Fatigue Strength Assessment of Drillships, Material Selection, Design Example

Total Hours: 45

Text Books

- Subrata K Ckakrabarti, “Handbook of Offshore Engineering”, Vol 1, Elsevier Publishers, 1st edition, 2005.
- Subrata K Ckakrabarti, “Handbook of Offshore Engineering”, Vol 2, Elsevier Publishers, 1st edition, 2005.
- Jeom Kee Paik and Anil Kumar Thayamballi, “Ship-Shaped Offshore Installations Design, Building, And Operation”, Cambridge university press, 2007

Reference Books:

1 Hiroshi Iwasaki, “A preliminary design study of Tension Leg Platform”, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Ocean Engineering, 1981

2 API,ABS,DNV codes

## Marine Refrigeration and Air-conditioning

UNIT I Basic Refrigeration and Air conditioning 9

Reversed carnot cycle- vapour compression cycle –Refrigerating effect-co-efficient of performance –cooling capacity-refrigerants and secondary refrigerant used in marine practice and their justification-rating of refrigeration plant –methods for improving C.O.P –use of vapour tables –applied problems

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UNIT II Marine Refrigerating Plants 9

Refrigeration Cycle, Undercharging of Refrigeration System, Overcharge of Refrigeration System,Typical marine refrigerating plants with multiple compression and evaporator system –heat pump cycles –refrigeration in liquefied gas carriers.

UNIT III Air conditioning 9

Psychometric charts-various processes-comfort and industrial A/C –Effective temperature and comfort-chart-unitary and central A/C system Marine Air Conditioning, Principles of air conditioning – psychometric properties of air – comfort condition – control of humidity – airflow and A.C.Capacity – Calculation for ships plants. Design and construction details of various equipment for air conditioning used in marine practice and their justification and humidity.

Unit IV Marine Refrigeration 9

Design and constructional details of various equipment used for refrigeration in marine practice, operation and maintenance, Refrigeration and A/C components. Operation, maintenance and troubleshooting of compressors and its unloader lubrication system for different compressors –properties of lubrication for refer compressor . Evaporators- condensers –expansion devices- thermostatic switches- solenoid valves- low pressure and high pressure but Out switches. Gas leak detection- rectification and charging of gas.

Unit V Refrigerated Cargo Vessels and Refrigerated Containers 9

Refrigerated cargo vessel- hold arrangements-air ventilation and circulation systems-insulation-precooling, classification society requirement, survey and certification guidelines, refrigerated containers- guide lines, duties responsibility of marine engineers- ventilation system- controlled atmosphere- carriage of fruit cargoes.

Total Hours: 45

Textbooks:

- Arora C.P. “ Refrigeration & Air Conditioning”, 1stadition, Sri Eswar enterprises, Chennai, 1993.
- Stoecker, Willbert.F Jones, Jerold.W., “ Refrigeration and air conditioning”, 2nd edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, Delhi 1985

Reference Books: - D.A.taylor, “ Introduction to marine Engineering”, 2nd Edition, Butter Worth, London, 1993.
- J.R.Stott, “Refrigerating Machinery and Air Conditioning Plant”, 1st Edition, The Institute of marine engineers, London, 1974, Reprint 1998.

## Marine Corrosion and Coating Engineering

Unit I Corrosion 9

Galvanic cell, Formation theory- Differential aeration theory. Factors influencing rate of corrosion. Chemical and electrochemical corrosion, types of corrosion, general methods of prevention and control of corrosion, sacrificial anode method, paints, varnishes and enamels, metallic coatings, hot dipping, galvanizing, electroplating.

Unit II Protective Coatings Application 9

Paints-definition- components of paints and their functions- Special paints- Luminescent, heat resistant, fire retardant, Anti-fouling paints Health & Safety, Access Systems, Surface Preparation, Paint Types, Paint application and various methods, Paint Manufactures specification, Coating Inspection and Coating Inspection Equipment

Unit III Abrasive Blast Cleaning 9

Abrasive Blast Cleaning Introduction, Health and Safety, Blast Media, Abrasive Blast Cleaning Standards & Quality Control, Abrasive Blast Cleaner Operational procedures, Process Control, Bead blasting, Hydro-blasting, Micro-abrasive blasting, Automated blasting.

Unit IV Paint Spraying& inspection 9

Introduction, Health and Safety, Paint Materials, Airless Spray Equipment, Conventional Air Spray Equipment, coating failures, metallic coating, design and construction, concrete, coating surveys, paint manufacture specialist coating, ISO and other international standards, quality management, paint testing, paint thickness measurement (dry and wet) , soluble slats, fire protection

Unit V IMO& NACE Guidelines 9

Marine PSPC, External corrosion and Coating Surveys, Cathodic Protection, Metallic Coatings, Specialist Coatings, Pipeline and facility external corrosion control, Facilities and pipelines cathodic protection design, Pipeline Coatings, and pipeline coating inspection, Pipeline HVAC induced interference, Coating Failures Degradation mechanisms and their control, Paint Repair Technologies, Estimation of paints qty.

Total Hours: 45

Text Books

- EC Tupper, “Intoduction to Naval Architecture”, Betterworth- Heinemann, UK
- Lloyds painting manuals
- Paint manufactures recommendations

Reference Books - Painting Schemes of Indian coast guard, shipping corporation of India and Indian navy.
- ISO and other international standards on painting.
- Onboard maintenance painting guide, International paints