Masters in Hydrology Engineering

Hydrometeorology and Climate Change

Atmosphere: General circulation, composition and structure of
atmosphere, role of meteorology in hydrology

Precipitation Process: Adiabatic process, stability and instability of
atmosphere

Atmospheric Thermodynamics: Equation of state, Dalton’s of
partial pressure, Poisson’slaw, equivalent potential temperature,
concept of air parcel, virtual temperature, dry adiabatic lapse rate
and saturated adiabatic lapse rate, hydrostatic equilibrium equation,
dispersion of air pollutants

Clouds: Classification, formation and characteristics,Monsoon
circulation, monsoon troughs, monsoon depression and tropical
cyclones

Climate and Climate Change: Components, Phenomena,
radiative forces, Energy budget and transport, atmospheric
circulation, ocean circulation, land-surface process, carbon cycle

Physical processes:Conservation of momentum, equation of state,
temperature equation, continuity equation, conservation of mass

Climate Models: Introduction to GCM and RCM simulations,
SRES, downscaling GCM outputs

ENSO: El Niño basic, Tropical pacific climatology, El Niño
mechanism, ENSO indices, predictions and teleconnections

Greenhouse effects and climate feedbacks:Global energy model,
greenhouse effect and global warming, climate feedback

Climate Model scenarios for global warming: Greenhouse
gases, aerosols forcing, global-average response to GhG warming
scenarios on temperature, rainfall, sea, ice/snow, extreme events

Reference books

David, J., “Climate change and Climate modelling”, Cambridge
University Press.

Shelton, ML, “Hydroclimatology”, Cambridge University Press

Singh, V.P. and Rakhecha, P. Book, Applied Hydrometeorology

Cotton R and Pielke RA, Human Impacts on Weather and Climate,
Cambridge University Press.

Berry I.A., “Handbook of Meteorology”, Mc Graw Hill

Hydrogeology

Introduction: Hydrogeology and its scope, hydrologic cycle and its
relation to groundwater, classification of natural waters, merits and
demerits of groundwater age of groundwater, basic geology

Classification of Aquifers:Hydrological classification of geological
materials, types of aquifers, geological formations as aquifers.

Hydraulic properties of aquifers and related materials: Porosity
and its estimation, factors controlling porosity, hydraulic conductivity
and methods of its estimation, transmissivity, storativity, specific yield
leakage factor, hydraulic resistance and specific capacity.

Occurrence and Movement of Groundwater:Geological controls in
occurrence and movement of groundwater, role of land forms,
geological structures, stratigraphic and sedimentation controls,
geographic distribution of aquifer materials

Methods of Groundwater Exploration: Geomorphological and
geological techniques, hydrological techniques, remote sensing andits
application in groundwater targeting, indicators of groundwater, use of
geophysical techniques in pinpointing water well locations

Drilling Techniques: Methods of shallow well drilling, percussion,
hydraulic rotary, reverse rotary and down the hole hammer techniques

Ground Water in Different Geological Formations:Hydrogeology of
crystalline rocks, volcanic rocks, clastic and carbonates rocks and
unindurated sedimentary formations, ground water quality in various
geological formations

Preparation of Hydrogeologic Maps: Geologic
andhydrogeologicmaps, field methods of hydrgeological mapping,
representation of hydrogeological data on geological maps

Ground Water in Regions of Climatic Extremes: Occurrence and
movement of groundwater in Arid &semi arid regions and in glacial
regions, groundwater management and quality in different regions

Hydrogeological Divisions of India: Groundwater provinces of India
and their hydrogeological features, aquifer characteristics and yield of
wells, management of groundwater

Reference Books

Singhal, B.B.S. and Gupta, R.P., “Applied Hydrogeology of Fractured
Rocks”, Springer

Fletcher, F.W., “Basic Hydrogeologic Methods”, Technomic Publishing
Company

Soliman, M. M., La Moreaux, P.E., Memon, B.A. , Assad, F.A. and La
Moreaux, J.W., “Environmental Hydrogeology”, Lewis Publishers

Karanth, K.R., “Hydrogeology”, McGraw Hill

Davis, S. and Dewiest, R.J.M., “Hydrogeology”, John Wiley& Sons

Channel and Fluvial Hydraulics

Introduction:Review of fundamentals of hydraulics, hydrostatics and
hydrodynamics

Energy Depth Relationships: Open channel flow, basic features,
uniform flow, critical flow, specific energy, specific energy diagram,
flow transitions, momentum principles, hydraulic jumps and computer
assisted calculations

Gradually-Varied Flow Theory:Steady state gradually varied flow,
governing differential equation, characteristics and classification; step
methods, direct integration method, graphical integration method of
water surface profiles, computer oriented algorithms

Unsteady Flow:Transient gradually varied flow, Saint Venant’s
equations, simplified hydraulic routing methods- diffusion wave
theory, kinematic wave theory, approximate convection–diffusion
equations, overland flow theory, computer oriented algorithms

Fluvial Hydraulics:Introduction, bed forms, incipient condition,
sediment load-bed, suspended and total loads, field measurements

Design of Channels:Regime channels, design of stable channelscritical
tractive force approach

References

Ranga Raju, K.G., “Flow Through Open Channels”, Tata-Mc
Graw Hill Publisher Company Ltd.

Subramanya, K., “Flow in Open Channels”, Tata-Mc Graw Hill
Publisher Company Ltd.

Chanson, H., “The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: An
Introduction”, Elsevier-Butterworth-Heinemann Company

Henderson, F.M., “Open Channel Flow”, Macmillan Publishing
Company, Inc.

Water Resources Planning and Management

Introduction:Introduction to water resources planning and
management

Reservoir Capacity and Yield:Finding reservoir capacity and yield
using mass curves

Flow-duration Curve: Determination of flows of various
dependabilities using Ranking method and Class interval method

Reservoir Sediment Distribution: Sediment distribution using
empirical area reduction method and area increment method

Conjunctive Water-use Planning: Combined use of surface and
groundwater

Reservoir Operation and Flood Routing: Reservoir routing using
Pul’s method for flood control, reservoir operation using SOP and
Zoning methods

Integrated River-basin Development: Interbasin river water
transfers – modeling for trans-boundary river basins in India, river
water disputes – modeling of various Indian river water disputes
using reservoir yield models, environmental aspects of water
resources projects

Cost benefit Analysis: Mathematic of finance, discounting
technique; Financial analysis

Reservoir Planning:single purpose reservoir and multipurpose
reservoir

Reference Books

Dandekar, M.M., and Sharma, K.N., “Water Power Engineering”,
Vikas Publishing House

Mays, L.W., “Water Resources Engineering”, John Wiley & Sons

Wood, A.J. and Wollenberg, B.F., “Power Generation, Operation
and Control”, John Wiley & Sons

Stephenson, D., “Water Resources Management”, A.A. Balkema
Publishers

Goodman, A.S., “Principles of Water Resources Planning”,
Prentice Hall Inc

Stochastic Hydrology

Definition, objectives, components and importance of time series analysis

Analysis for trends and periodicityusing non-parametric and parametric
tests, peridogram, and, Pmax and Pmin test for selection of significant
harmonics; spectral analysis,Tests for short term and long term dependence

Auto correlation analysis, AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA models and their
application in data generation and forecasting

Synthetic data generation for various distributions and their transformations

Generation of streamflows usingThomas Fiering models, and other
disagreegation and agreegation models, and multisite models
Generation of rainfall using transition probability matrix method and
multisite models

At site, at site regional and regional frequency analysis; graphical and
analytical methods for normal lognormal Gumbel GEV and generalized
logistic distributions, L moments based methods, Goodness of fit tests like
Chi square, K-S test and L moments based tests,
Partial duration series, standard error of estimates, Risk analysis

Analysis of low flows, forecasting of low and high flows, graphical and
analytical methods, models adopted by Central Water Commission

Reference Books

Hosking J. R. M. and Wallis J. R., “Regional Frequency Analysis: An
Approach Based on L-Moments”, Cambridge UniversityPress

“Manual on Flood Forecasting”, River Management Wing, Central Water
Commission, India

Kottegoda N.T., “Stochastic Water Resources Technology”, John Wiley &
Sons

Salas J.D., Delleur J.W., Yevjevich V. and Lane W.L., “Applied Modeling
of Hydrologic Time Series”, Water Resources Publications

Box G. P. and Jenkins G.M., “Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and
Control”, Holden Day Publisher

Surface Water Modeling and Simulation

Hydrologic Simulation overview: Classification of Hydrological
Models, Components of Hydrological Simulation Models, System
identification, conceptualization, implementation and documentation

Overview of event based models and theoretical background

Overview of continuous modelsand theoretical background

Numerical solution techniques, parameter optimization, calibration
and validation

Overview of open source and commercial simulation models for
hydrological modelling and forecasting

Catchment scale modeling using TOPMODEL; Large scale modeling
using VIC Model, Ethics in modeling

Reference Books

HEC-RAS River Analysis System-Reference Manual

Anderson, M.G., and P.D. Bates. Model Validation: Perspectives in
Hydrological Science. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. England.

Singh VP, “Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology”, Water
Resources Publications, Littleton

Beven, K. J. Rainfall-Runoff Modeling: The Primer. John Wiley and
Sons, NY.

Systems Analysis and Surface Water Planning

Introduction to Systems Analysis

Linear Programming, simplex method, graphical method, dual
of linear programming, multipurpose reservoir planning (Single
reservoir application, multi reservoir application), reservoir
yield model (Complete model, implicit stochastic model)

Dynamic programming, Bellman’s principle, water allocation
to different water users, distribution of canal water to different
users

Use of uncontrolled inventory DP model for water import,
capacity expansion & sequencing, unit commitment

Non-linear programming, unconstrained non linear
programming , constrained non linear programming, Kahn-
Tucker conditions

Reservoir planning – Single reservoir and multi reservoir
applications using controlled output DP model and controlled
inventory DP model, Multi-objective optimization

Application of LINDO software to linear programming
problems

Reference Books

Simonovic, S. P., “Managing Water Resources: Methods and Tools for
a Systems Approach”, UNESCO Publishing, France.

Jain, S.K. and Singh, V.P, “Water Resources Systems Planning and
Management”, Elsevier

Loucks D.P. and van Beek E., “Water Resources Systems Planning
and Management”, UNESCO Publishing, The Netherlands

Ravindran, A., “Operations Research Principles and Practice”, John
Wiley & Sons

Loucks D.P., “Water Resources System Planning and Analysis”,
Prentice Hall Inc

Deterministic Hydrology

Systems Concept: Nature of systems approach, systems terminology, types of
systems:linear, time invariant and time variant systems and nonlinear systems

Hydrological Systems: The hydrological cycle as a system, unit hydrograph
methods, identification of hydrological systems, simulation of hydrological
systems

Linear Conceptual Models of Direct Runoff: Conceptual models such as
Nash, Dooge, Clark, Muskingum models; Comparison of conceptual models,
generalized linear system models and their limiting forms

Calibration of Conceptual Models: Use of moment matching, effect of data
errors of conceptual models; parsimonious models, parameters optimisation ,
equi-finality concept in model parameters estimation, model evaluation
measures

Physically Based Surface Flow Models:Overland flow models, channel
routing models – multilinear models, simplified hydraulic model, V-catchment
model- Top model, basic concepts

Nonlinear Deterministic Models: Nonlinearity in hydrology, nonlinear blackbox
models, problem of overland flow, linearization of nonlinear systems using
multi-linear systems

Watershed Models: Necessity for modeling, modeling philosophy, modeling
protocol, event based hydrological models, continuous simulation models

Reference Books

Beven, Keith, “Rainfall Runoff modelling –The Primer” 2nd edition,
Wiley- Blackwell

Dooge, J.C.I., and O’Kane, J.P., “Deterministic Methods in Systems
Hydrology”, A.A. Balkema

Singh, V.P., “Hydrologic Systems; Watershed Modelling Modelling”
Vol. II, Prentice Hall

Singh, V.P., “Hydrologic Systems; Rainfall Runoff Modelling”,
Vol. I, Prentice Hall

Groundwater Hydrology

Scope of groundwater hydrology and its historical development, aquifer
types and properties, compressibility of aquifers, methods of estimation of
hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy and heterogeneity of aquifers

Concept of representative elementary volume, Darcy law of groundwater
flow in porous media and its validity, continuity equation, Derivation of
groundwater flow equation, Dupits theory, Flow in ditches and galleries
tapping confined, leaky confined aquifersflow in unconfined aquifers with
and without surface recharge, unsaturated flow

Steady and unsteady flow into wells, Unsteady radial flow in aquifers,
equilibrium and nonequilibrium well pumping equations, analysis of test
pumping data of wells tapping confined, semi confined and unconfined
aquifers, recovery test, groundwater flow in partially penetrated aquifers,
flow near aquifer boundaries, multiple well systems

Evaluation of well loss parameters, specific capacity of wells, well
development and design,artificialand natural gravel pack wells

Groundwater budgeting and assessment, Methods of artificial
groundwater recharge, Induced recharge and rain water harvesting, river
bank filtration

Groundwater quality, seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers and its
abatement, Groundwater legislation in India and case histories

Reference Books

Todd. D.K. and Mays, L.W., “Groundwater Hydrology”, John
Wiley & Sons

Schwartz, F.W. and Zhang, H., “Fundamentals of Groundwater”,
John Wiley & Sons

Kruseman, G.P. and Deridder, N.A., “Analysis and Evaluation of
Pumping Test Data”, ILRI Publication No. 47

Karanth, K.R., “Groundwater, Assessment, Development and
Management”, MC Graw Hill Publishing Company

Freeze, R.A. and Cherry, J., “Groundwater”, Prentice Hall Inc

Groundwater Systems Analysis

Systems Concepts: System characteristics, component,
typesandconstraints, groundwater development, calibration and validation

Linear Programming: Graphical method, simplex method, big-M method
and dual simplex method

Dynamic Programming: Principal of optimality, recursive equation
representation, tabular method, example applications of dynamic
programming

Non Linear Programming: Classical optimization techniques,
constrained and unconstrained nonlinear algorithms, Lagrange multiplier
method and Kuhn- Tucker conditions

Numerical Modelling of Groundwater Flow:Review of differential
equations, finite difference approach, one-dimensional flow solution using
explicit, implicit methods, and Crank-Nicolson method, iterative methods,
Thomas algorithm, inverse modeling, stream-aquifer interaction, recent
modeling tools, embedded system

Planning of Groundwater Development: Water balance, assessment of
recharge, utilizable recharge, Indian practices, constraints on groundwater
development, feasibility check, optimal groundwater developments,
planning of groundwater development in canal command areas, planning
of groundwater development in coastal aquifers

Reference Books

Vedula, S., and Mujumdar, P.P., “Water Resources Systems”, Tata Mc
Graw Hill

Schwartz, F.W. and Zang, H., “Fundamentals of Ground Water”, John
Wiley & Sons

Ravindran, A., “Operations Research Principles and Practice”, John
Wiley & Sons

Wang, J.F., Anderson, M.P., 1982. Introduction to Groundwater
Modelling. Freeman, San Francisco, CA: 237 pp

Geophysical Investigations

Overview of geophysical techniques and their application in groundwater
exploration

Electrical resistivity methods for groundwater investigation; Principles,
electric-potential distribution in homogenous half space; Apparent
resistivity for common electrode configurations, current flow in
horizontally stratified earth, Vertical electrical sounding; Electrical
resistivity profiling and tomography; Inversion of Wenner and
Schlumberger apparent resistivity field data by partial curve matching and
Direct methods, correlation of interpreted resistivity data with local
geology, summation of resistivity in geoelectric section, Dar Zarrouk
parameters; Estimation of Transmissivity and Hydraulic conductivity
from resistivity data

Very low frequency (VLF), Ground penetration radar (GPR) methodsin
groundwater exploration, use of TDEM method in groundwater
exploration

Induced polarisationmethod and its application in groundwater
exploration of sandy zones in alluvial regions

Seismic refraction method for evaluation of bedrock investigation;
Applications in groundwater prospecting and limitations

Magnetic and gravity methods in groundwater targetting, applications and
their limitations

Reference Books

Zhdanov, M.S., “Geophysical electromagnetic theory and methods”
Elsevier

Nath, S.K., Patra, H.P. and Shahid, S., “Geophysical Prospecting for
Groundwater”, Oxford & IBH Publishing Company

Parasnis, D.S., “Principles of Applied Geophysics”,Chapman & Hall

Bhattacharya, P.K and Patra, H.P. “Direct Current Geoelectric
Sounding: Principles and Interpretation”, Elsevier

Keller, G.V. and Frischkhnechdt, F.C., “Electrical Methods in
Geophysical Prospecting”, PergamonPress

Planning and Management of Watersheds

Introduction:Principles of watershed management, objectives of
planning watershed projects, watershed delineation, determination of
priority critical areas, hydrological soil survey, land use survey and land
suitability analysis, concepts of land use planning

Systems Concepts: System component and constraints

Linear Programming: Graphical method, simplex method, duality and
dual simplex method

Nonlinear programming: Classical optimization techniques,
constrained and unconstrained nonlinear algorithms, Lagrange’s function,
Kuhn- Tucker conditions

Dynamic Programming: Principal of optimality recursive equation
representation, tabular method, water allocation to different water users

Economic Aspects: Basic frame work of economic analysis, steps in
economic analysis, discounting factors and discounting techniques;
Project economics–pattern of financing and credit and economic
evaluation

Multiple Use Concept: Watershed resources management with multiple
use concept

Modelling and Simulation Techniques: Model taxonomy, model
formulation, watershed simulation models, concept of integrated
watershed modeling

Reference Books

Vedula, S., and Mujumdar, P.P., “Water Resources Systems”, Tata
Mc Graw Hill

Ravindran, A., “Operations Research Principles and Practice”, John
Wiley & Sons

Chaturvedi, M.C., “Water Resources System Planning and
Management”, Tata Mc Graw Hill

Hall, W.A. and Dracup, J.A., “Water Resources Systems
Engineering”, Mc Graw Hill

Watershed Behavior and Conservation
Practices

Physical elements of a watershed, effects of land use changes on
hydrological cycle components

Concept of vegetative management of water yield and quality;
Ecosystem Services: Benefits to Human Societies

Natural and Human-induced watershed changes: Agents of watershed
changes; Climate change effects

Watershed planning, monitoring and assessment, Watershed
experiments, extrapolation of results from representative and
experimental basins, regional studies; Natural resource inventories

Estimation of Runoff using SCS and Rational Method suggested for
Indian conditions

Watershed development in India, Common Guidelines 2008,
Institutional arrangements at National, State, District, Project and
Village level, Allocation of funds, case studies; Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR)

Water erosion process, factors affecting erosion, types of erosion,
assessment of erosion, universal soil loss equation, control measures
for erosion, temporary and permanent measures

Reference Books

Brooks,K.N., P.F.Ffolliott, andJ.A.Magner.“Hydrology and
theManagement of Watersheds”,4thedition.Ames, Iowa:Wiley
Blackwell

Krishnaswamy, J., Lele, S., Jayakumar, R., “Hydrology and watershed
services in the Western Ghats, India.”. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.

Paul DeBarry, “Watersheds: Processes, Assessment and
Management”, John Wiley andSons, New York, NY

Frevert, R.K., Schwab, G.O., Edminster, T.W. and Barnes, K.K., “Soil
and Water Conservation Practices”, John Wiley & Sons

Tideman E.M. Watershed Management–Guidelines for Indian
Conditions, Omega Scientific Publishers, New Delhi

Environment Planning & Assessment of Projects

Environment components and communities, concepts of integrative
level and environmental planning, projection of human population
growth and related demands; Type of projects, propelling issues and
problem definition in planning,

Description of environmental setting and indicators, assessments of
physical environment; Geologic, hydrologic, climate and ecological
considerations, Biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity resources
and their classification, equitable use and conservation

International and national legislation on environmental planning and
assessment of projects; Introduction to various acts (Water, Air, Land
and Wild Life), network and role of agencies involved at various
stages of planning and implementation

Assessment of natural and manmade hazards, Air, water and soil
pollution: sources and impacts, vulnerability analysis, carrying
capacity analysis, water and ecological footprint: concepts and
assessment, environmental flows

Impact assessment frameworks and methodologies, decision support
prespective, conflict resolution, mitigation of hazards

Reference Books

Jorgensen, S.E.,”Introduction to Systems Ecology”, CRC

Philippe Quevauviller et al., “The Water Framework Directive: Action
programmes and adaptation to climate change”, RSC

Hoekstra, A. Y. and A.K. Chapagain, “Globalization of Water:
Sharing the planet’s freshwater resources”, Blackwell

Adolf, E. and Vili, T.D., “Air water and Soil Quality Modelling for
Risk and Impact Assessment”, Springer

Liu, D.H.F., Liptal, B.G. and Boris, P.A “Environmental Engineer’s
Handbook”, Lewis Publishers

Environmental Quality

Overview of Environment, components of environment and their
interaction, source and uses of water

Concepts from water, soil and air pollution chemistry, Microbiology
and ecology, solution, electroneutrality, equilibrium, reaction
kinetics, microbes in aquatic/terrestrial systems, types and functions,
aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

Introduction to water, soil and air quality concepts, impurities and
quality characterization, physical, chemical and biological
parameters, Soil and water quality issues, transport and
transformation processes in surface and groundwater systems

Introduction to analytical methods and instruments, field sampling
methods, storage and preservation of samples, analytical estimation,
analytical quality control and error analysis modeling concepts

Mandates and existing monitoring networks of field surface and
groundwater organizations, design and review of monitoring
networks, evaluation and rationalization of networks, case studies.

Analysis and interpretation of quality data, concepts of statistical
techniques for data analysis, analysis for correlations, variability
trends, violations, reporting and graphical presentation

Legislation and management in environment quality, water and air
quality criteria and standards, national and international perspective

Reference Books

Ahuja S., “Monitoring Water Quality: Pollution Assessment,
Analysis, and Remediation”, Elsevier

Li Y., Migliaccio K., “Water Quality Concepts, Sampling, and
Analyses”, CRC Press

Masters, G.M., “Introduction to Environmental Science and
Engineering’, Pearson Education

“Standard Methods for Water & Wastewater Analysis” 21st
Edition, APHA

Crompton, T.R., ‘Soil Analysis: Handbook for Reference
Methods”, CRC Press

Mathess, G., “The properties of Groundwater”, John Wiley &
sons

Remote Sensing and GIS Applications in
Hydrology

Principal of Remote Sensing: Definition, active and passive remote
sensing, aerial and space platforms

Electromagnetic Radiation: EMR interaction with atmosphere,
atmospheric windows and their significance, interaction with earth
surface materials, specular and diffuse reflection surfaces, spectral
reflectance curves and spectral signature, spectral reflectance curves
of water, soil and vegetation

Satellite Programs and Sensors: Classification, description of multi
spectral scanning – along and across track scanners satellite sensors ,
resolution types, description of sensors in Landsat, SPOT, IRS series

Satellite Image Interpretations: Basic principles of image
interpretation, visual interpretation, elements of image interpretation,
digital image processing, supervised and unsupervised classification

Introduction to GIS: Components, data types – spatial, attribute and
metadata, raster and vector data and their comparison, data
abstraction, maps and map scale

Coordinate System: Datum, geographical coordinate system,
projected coordinate system and their need, basic projection types,
polyconic and UTM projections

Data Input and Editing: Raster and vector data formats,
georeferencing, data input using scanner and on-screen digitization,
input using XY data, data editing, attribute data

Remote Sensing and GIS Applications: LULC Classification,flood
plain mapping and zoning, ground water studies, erosion
sedimentation studies, watershed and drainage delineation

Reference Books

Lillesand, T.M. and Kieffer, “Remote Sensing and Image
Interpretation”, – 6th Reprint, Joh Wiley and Sons

Chang, K, “Introduction to Geographical Systems”, 4th Edition, Tata
McGraw-Hill

DeMers, M.N., “Fundamentals of Geographical Information
Systems”, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons

Schowengerdt, R.A., “Remote Sensing Models and Methods for
Image Processing”, 3rd Edition, Academic Press

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