Masters in Geomatics Engineering

Mine Surveying Techniques

Surveying: Definition, Objective, Classification and principles, Errors

Measurements: Linear Measurements, Angular Measurements, Levelling

Contouring: Concepts, Characteristics, Contour Interval, Methods of
contouring and uses of contours

Total Station: Principle of electronic measurement of distance and
angles, Construction and working with Total Station, Applications and
Recent Developments

Underground mining conditions, underground traversing and
underground levelling, Survey requirements in underground mines

Borehole survey, Dip and strike problems out crop problems

Digital Mine Plans, area and volume calculation: Data Processing,
Representation and Earthwork Calculations

Mine Surveying – Statutory Requirements: General requirements
about mine plans and sections, Types of plans and sections, Specification
of Limits of Error. Duties and Responsibilities of Surveyors

Correlation and Alignment: Principle, Methods, Determination of
Gyro-north, Modern Gyro-Laser combination Correlation; Shaft depth
measurement.

Monitoring of Open Pit Slopes and Subsidence through Advanced
Surveying Techniques: Geodetic approaches in slope monitoring

Development and Stope Surveying: Control of direction and gradient in
drifts, tunnels, raises, winzes, Methods of survey in moderately and
steeply inclined ore bodies, flat and vertical ore bodies/seams

References:
Text Book

  1. Punmia, B. C. (2005), Surveying Vol. 1 and II
  2. Schofield, W. and Breach M. (2006), Engineering Surveying

Geographical Information System

Introduction, Basin concepts about Spatial information and
Terminology, Historical evolution and need for spatially based resource
information system, Utility of GIS.

Essential Components of GIS: hardware software requirement of GIS,
Various GIS packages and their salient features, Data acquisition
through scanners and digitizers

Raster and Vector Data: Introduction, Representation of real world via
vector and raster representation model, topology and spatial
relationships, Raster to Vector conversion, Data storage verification
and editing

Data input and Quality verification: Data input, data verification, and
Correction and storage data output; data user interfaces

Data pre-processing, Georeferencing, Data compression and reduction
techniques, Runlengthencoding, Interpolation of data, Database
Construction, Data Output

Database construction, database structure, Hierarchical data, Network
systems, Relational database, Database management, Data
manipulation and analysis

Spatial and mathematical operations in GIS, Overlay, Query based,
Measurement and statistical modelling, Buffers, Spatial Analysis,
Statistical Reporting and Graphing

Programming languauges in GIS, Web GIS

Text Book References:

  1. Burrough, P.A. and Mc Donnel, R.A.(1998), “Principles of Geographic Information
    System”
  2. Kang-tsung Chang. (2002), “Introduction to Geographic Information System

Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing

Introduction to Remote Sensing System, Historic perspective,
electromagnetic radiation, sources of EM radiation for remote sensing

interaction of EMR with atmosphere, atmospheric windows,
interacting EM Radiation with earth’s surface, spectral signature

Fundamentals of radiometry, surface characteristics for radiometric
measurement, physical basis of signatures

Remote Sensors and platforms, classification of remote sensors,
spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal resolution.

Characteristics of optical, infrared and microwave sensors and their
data products

Application of remote sensing to various engineering areas.

Visual image analysis and image interpretation, preprocessing of
images

Digital Image Processing System: Components, data formats, The
Histogram and Its Significance to Digital Image Processing of Remote
Sensor Data and Univariate Descriptive Image Statistics, Multivariate
Image Statistics

Image Pre-processing: Radiometric and Geometric Correction
Radiometric and Geometric errors and Corrections, Correction for
Sensor System, Correction for environmental attenuation error; Imageto-
Map Geometric rectification implementation

Image Enhancement: Image Reduction and Magnification, Contrast
Enhancement, Band Ratioing, Spatial Filtering to Enhance Low- and
High-Frequency Detail and Edges, Special Transformations, Principal
Components Analysis.

Image Classification: Supervised Classification, Unsupervised
Classification, Fuzzy Classification, Statistical algorithms,
Classification Map Accuracy Assessment

Text Book References:

  1. John A. Richards (2012), Remote Sensing and Digital Image Analysis
  2. Thomas L., Ralph W. Kiefer, and Jonathan C. (2015), Remote Sensing and Image
    Interpretation

Elements of Mining Technology

Evolution of mining and mining process flow (Feasibility study,
development, exploitation and reclamation), Mining and Mineral
Life Cycle, Overview of Mineral Industry.
Definition of mining; Basic terminology; History of mining;
Feasibility assessment; FR; DPR; Mine development; Methods of
exploitation and reclamation

Opening up of mineral deposits for mining through adit, incline,
decline and shaft
Choice of entries, Location, shape and size of entries, Relative
comparison; Excavation, support, mucking, and ventilation;
Problems and remedies; Case studies

Basic terminology; Types of ores/minerals and their genesis,
Stages and schemes of mineral exploration and quantitative
estimation of resources, Industrial applications of ores/nonmetallic
minerals

Surface mining methods-Classification, Selection imperatives,
Open-pit mining and quarrying.
Basic terminology; Mining methods; Choice, Unit operations,
Equipment, Examples

Underground mining methods-Classification, selection
imperatives, Cut and fill, shrinkage and long hole stoping
Basic terminology; Applicability, Excavation, Support and
ventilation; Case studies

Strip mining, Placer mining, Hilly mining
Basic terminology; planning, methods, equipment, Case studies

Room and pillar, sublevel and block caving
Basic terminology; Applicability, Excavation, Support and
ventilation; Case studies

Coal mining methods (Longwall, Bord & Pillar and special
methods)
Basic terminology; Applicability, Excavation, Support and
ventilation; Case studies

Sustainable mineral development, best practices and global
initiatives

Text Book References:

  1. Howard L. Hartman and Jan M. Mutmansky (2007), Introductory Mining
    Engineering
  2. D. J. Deshmukh (2008), Element of Mining Technology, Vol 1 -3

Geodesy and GNSS Surveying

Geodesy:
shape of the earth, geoid, spheroid and ellipsoid of revolution, use
of gravity in geodesy, coordinate system, geodetic reference
systems,

calculations on the ellipsoid, astronomical and geodetic coordinates,
orthometric, dynamic and normal heights, geo-potential number

Principles of GNSS: Introduction to GNSS, Time and Reference
Systems, Satellite Orbits and Attitude, Signals and Modulation,
Clocks, Atmospheric Signal Propagation

Satellite Navigation Systems: The Global Positioning System
(GPS), GLONASS, Galileo, Chinese navigation satellite system,
Regional systems

GNSS Receivers and Antennas: Receiver architecture, Signal
processing, Multipath, Interference, Antennas, Simulator and test
equipment

GNSS Algorithm and Models: Basic observation equations,
combinations of observations, positioning model, least-squares
estimation and kalman filtering, carrier phase integer ambiguity
resolution, batch and recursive model validation

Positioning and Navigation: precise point positioning, differential
positioning, attitude determination, GNSS/INS integration, land and
maritime applications, aviation applications, ground based
augmentation system, space applications

Surveying, Geodesy and Geodynamics: the international GNSS
service, orbit and clock product generation, surveying, geodesy,
geodynamics

GNSS Remote Sensing and Timing: monitoring of the neutral
atmosphere, Ionosphere monitoring, reflectometry, GNSS time and
frequency transfer

Text Books:

  1. Torge, Wolfgang / Müller, Jürgen (2012) “Geodesy”
  2. Lu, Zhiping, Qu, Yunying, Qiao, Shubo (2014) “Geodesy: Introduction to Geodetic
    Datum and Geodetic Systems

Advanced Surveying Practical

Linear Measurement: Chain, Tape and Distometer

Theodolite Traversing and distribution of closing errors.

Levelling with Auto Level and Digital Level and distribution
of closing errors

Application of Total Station: Measurement of distance, angle
between two stations, coordinates, missing line measurement,
offsetting, resection

Traversing with Total Station and adjustment of Error

Field data downloading and processing to prepare the Grids,
Contours, Plans and Section

Gyromat: Determination of Gyro-north

Study of Nadir Plummet and LASER for Correlation survey

Study of GPS and GNSS Surveying; GPS data downloading
and post-processing

Computer Aided Mine Planning and Design

Introduction
Applications of CAD systems in mine design, Surface modelling concepts
Introduction to various mine planning software

Data Representation and Processing Tools
Understanding data representation and processing tools, File tools, String
concept, String file handling, Data import & export

Database Management
Database management and Geological modelling, Reduction of data into
presentable form, Drill hole visualization, Creation of Digital Terrain
Models, DTM Volume calculations, Contouring, Auto-plotting, Sectioning a
DTM, Solid Models, Compositing

Pit design and optimization, Mine Scheduling

Computer Aided Underground Mine Design

Reference Book

  1. W. A. Hustrulid (1995), Open Pit Mine Planning
  2. Lecture note by Faculty Member

Microwave Remote Sensing

Why microwaves, overview of microwave systems, a brief history of
microwaves; Physical fundamentals: physical properties of EM waves,
Energy and power of waves, combination of waves, most important aspect of microwave-phase as a (relative) distance measure, combining two waves in 2-D, quantifying the interference pattern, passive case, multiple source interference pattern, beam width and angular resolution; Huygens’

Polarimetry: Describing polarized waves, superposition of polarized waves,
representing polarization, passive polarimetry, polarimetry in Radar,
important polarimetric properties. wavelets, propagation of microwaves, sources of microwaves

Microwaves in the real world: continuous media and the atmosphere,
interaction with discrete objects, scattering and emission from volumes,
reflection and emission from smooth surfaces, scattering and emission from
rough surfaces, non-random(periodic) surfaces, scattering and emission
from natural surfaces, special scatterers.

Detecting Microwaves: General approach, conceptual approach to
microwave systems, basic microwave radiometer, antenna, receiver,
coherent systems, active systems, system performance, calibration

Atmospheric sounding: Atmospheric sounding, principle of measurement,
theoretical basis of sounding, viewing geometries, passive rainfall
mapping; Passive imaging: principles of measurement, oceans, sea ice,
land.

Active microwaves: Principle of measurements, generic equations of radar
performance, radar altimeters, improving directionality, scatterometers,
imaging radar-need for imaging radar, image, radar image construction,
SLAR (RAR), SAR, radar equation for SAR, geometric distortions in radar
images, operational limits, SAR acquisition modes, working with SAR
images, SAR data formats, extracting topography using stereo SAR
Radargrammetry

Interferometry: needs for interferometric measurements, principles of
interferometry, passive imaging interferometry, radar interferometry,
Topographic height estimation using InSAR, vegetation height estimation
using InSAR, PolInSAR and SAR Tomography, differential SAR
interferometry (DInSAR) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) for
land surface deformation estimation.

References:

  1. Massonet,D. & Souyris, J.C.(2008): Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar. EPFL
    press distributed by CRC press.
  2. Lee, J.S., & Pottier, E. (2009): Polarimetric Radar Imaging. From Basics to
    Applications. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis.

Modelling and Analysis of Geospatial data

Types of Geospatial Data: Ratio, Categorical and Ordinal Data. Spatial and
Non-spatial data. Vector and Raster Data. Primary and Secondary Data.

Geo-spatial Data Structures and Database Management Systems: Data
Compression Models, DBMS and Relational DBMS. File Formats for
various GIS Data Types

Coordinate Transformations: Two-Dimensional, Conformal, Affine,
Projective Coordinate Transformation. Three-Dimensional Conformal
Coordinate Transformation. Map models and Map Projection Systems

Map analysis: Foundations for analysis of continuous and discrete
phenomena, analysis and modelling with map algebra, Map
reclassification, spatial topological and geometric modelling. Map overlay
and modelling correlation between two maps. Multiple maps, types of
models, Boolean logic models, Index overlay models, Fuzzy logic
methods. 3D visualization: multiple surfaces and volumes, 3D vector
objects

Terrain Modelling and Analysis: Terrain and bathymetry mapping,
mathematical and digital representations (point clouds, contour, raster,
TIN), spatial interpolation of elevation data and topographic analysis

Multi Criterion Decision Making: Standardisation of weights, Analytical
Hierarchical Process (AHP), Spatial Decision Support System

Methods of Spatial interpolation: Methods for interpolation, global
methods of interpolation, location interpolators, optimal interpolation
methods using spatial auto covariance. Extensions of kriging to large areas.
Comparing kriging with other interpolation techniques.

Measurements and Analysis: Sample versus Population. Graphical
Representation of Geo-spatial Data. Measures of Central Tendency –
Mean, Median, Mode. Mean Vector. Measures of Variation in Data –
Variance Covariance and Correlation Matrices

Uncertainty Modelling of Geo-spatial Data: Uncertainties in various Geospatial
Data, Fuzzy set, Monte Carlo Simulations. Error Ellipse for
Uncertainty Quantification

Technological trends in GIS: GIS customization, Data warehousing, cloud
GIS, data mining, OLAP, distributed, spatial data infrastructure, Free and
open source tools and web resources, Introduction to spatial decision
problems, GIS and decision support system, over view of Internet GIS,
Location based services

References:

  1. John D. Bossler, John R. Jensen, Robert B. McMaster (2004)., “Manual of Geospatial
    Science and Technology”, Taylor and Francis.
    15
  2. Petrasova A, Harmon B, Petras V, Tabrizian P, Mitasova H., (2018), Tangible
    Modeling with Open Source GIS. Second edition. Springer International Publishing.

Managerial Decision Making

Introduction: The origin and nature of Managerial Decision-Making tools. Taxonomy of
decision-making models.
Linear Programming: Linear Optimisation Models, Systems of Linear inequalities,
Generalised Linear Programming model, Scenarios and formulations, SIMPLEX methods of
solutions, <= constraints, Two phase method and Big M method (Penalty method) of
SIMPLEX, mixed constraints. Primal and Dual Problems, Interpretation of SIMPLEX Table.
Sensitivity Analysis of LPP on objective function coefficient and RHS constant. Mining
oriented problems amenable to Linear Programming.
Specialised Linear Models: Transportation and Assignment Models, Algorithm for
Transportation and Assignment Models, Special considerations in solving Transportation and
Assignment problems, Sensitivity Analysis for Transportation Problems.
Multi-objective Programming (Goal Programming): Mathematical models, Concepts of
structural and goal constraints, Ranking of goals and solution methods.
Project Management and other Network Models: Project Planning & Scheduling with
basic PERT model, Lowest cost schedule using CPM model, Resource levelling and
Resource Allocation, Cost control through PERT network, Shortest route algorithm, Minimal
spanning tree problem.
Inventory Model: Nature of inventory problems, Technical and economic parameters,
Classical EOQ model, Inventory model with quantity discount, Deterministic inventory
models with constraints, stochastic inventory models.
Simulation: Nature & process of Simulation, Fundamental of Monte Carlo Simulation,
Simulation of queueing and inventory systems.
Text Books:

  1. Principles of Operations Research for Management by Frank S. Budnick, Richrd Mojena
    and Thomas E Vollmann
  2. Introduction to operations Research by F S Hillier & Lieberman.
    Reference Books:
  3. System Analysis and Project Management by D.I Cleland & William R King (PP 1-
    120 & 341-367
  4. A Management Guide to PERT/CPM by J D Weist & F K Levy

Remote Sensing and Image Processing Practical

Introduction to different types of remote sensing data products

Training of Visual interpretation and Analysis and of a satellite
data.

Demo on different types of remote sensing based software

Initial Statistics Extraction

Atmospheric Correction applied on satellite image

Geometric Correction applied on satellite image

Image Enhancement techniques

To carry out pre-processing steps of SAR remote sensing
images including multilooking, speckle filtering, geocoding
and terrain-correction

To carry out advance digital processing steps of SAR remote
sensing images including polarimetry, speckle and texture
filter, coherence generation;

To carry out InSAR processing steps for DEM generation.

To carry out DInSAR processing steps for deformation
mapping.

Mining, Energy, and Climate Change

Basics of Global Warming and Climate change
Global warming and glacial change, the rise of carbon, Alpine “Hot
Box” experiment, the atmosphere as a dam built across a river, Royal
Institution Laboratory and findings of John Tyndall, Guy Calendar,
Arrhenius etc., the age of discovery : findings of Roger Rivelle,
Keelings Curve, large scale geophysical experiments, modelling of
climate and road to Rio, journey to Paris protocol

India’s Initial and Second National Communication to the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
National Circumstances, GHG Inventory Information, Vulnerability
Assessment and Adaptation, Research and Systematic Observations,
Education, Training and Public Awareness, Programmes Related to
Sustainable Development, Constraints and Gaps, and Related
Financial, Technical and Capacity Needs

Coal and Uranium Mining for Energy security
Coal mining and electrical age, Wizards of Menlo Park, Battle of the
currents, Metering of the energy, Regulatory bargain, The growth of
electrical age, Uranium mining and nuclear cycle, Nuclear navy,
Disaster of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl Disasters and Fukushima

Oil and Natural Gas – Adventure in Energy resources
Growth of world’s liquid fuel production, Fluctuation of demand,
supply and prices, Fear of running out of oil, Gulf war – Desert storm,
Pipeline battle, Influence of different nations in the Persian Gulf,
Major discoveries of oil and innovations in the oil and gas industry for
higher recovery

Role of renewable energy
Solar, Wind, Biofuels, Biomass, Geothermal, Hydropower and other
renewable energy options;
Developments in different fields and their contribution to the energy
basket

Carbon dioxide sequestration and reduction of carbon footprint
Different methods for carbon dioxide sequestration: Geological
reserves, marine water and other methods for sequestration, other uses
of carbon dioxide for reduction of global warming

India’s commitment for augmenting global warming
Paris protocol, India’s commitment for reduction of global warming
and actions envisaged

References:

  1. Future of Energy: Brian F. Towler (2014)
  2. The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World: Daniel Yergin
    (2011)

Construction management for underground space

Introduction (7 Lectures): Introduction to lean construction, Productivity, Economic development,
Energy consumption, Sustainability, International environmental protocols, Productivity
improvement, Employee participation
Site Organization and Construction Management (11 Lectures): Work preparation in tunneling,
Equipment and staff disposition, Estimation of performance, Cost estimation, Basics of tunnel layout
for operation, Aerodynamics, Tunnel safety, Drainage, Optimal data flow, Mechanical equipment, 50
hertz devices, Electrical power supply, Design of access to the operation facilities
19
Construction Contract (7 Lectures): Introduction of NATM-relevant standards and
guidelines, Presentation and discussion of different construction contract models and their
application, Structure of construction contracts, Influence of contract types on project
execution, Role of the contractor and engineering office, Risks and risk management,
Workforce motivation, Case discussions
Business management (7 Lectures): Project procurement- The construction process, Project
manager/leader, Health and safety considerations, Performance of different contract
categories; Estimating and tendering, Competitive bidding, Cash flow and interim valuations,
Economic assessments, Application of ERP.
Administration and company management (7 Lectures): Company organization, Market
planning and business development, International construction logistics and risks,
Information resources and ICT systems, financial management
Text Book:
 Modern Construction Management, Frank Harris, Ronald McCaffer, and Francis Edum-
Fotwe, Wiley, 2013
Book for References:

  1. Design and construction of tunnels—-Pietro Lunardi, Springer, 2008

Sustainable Mining

Course Content:
An Introduction to Sustainable development for mining sector (13 lectures)
 Environmental and social perception about mining
 Impact of mining on the environment
 Definition of sustainable development in mining and need for sustainable
development in mining
 Overview of sustainable development framework for mining and principles of
sustainable development framework
 Legal and institutional framework
Sustainable mining methods and operational excellence (14 lectures)
 Mine planning process, components of mine planning, mine development strategy,
mine planning horizons
20
 Surface mining methods for sustainable mining operations (Mining methods, modes
of transportation, haul road maintenance, dust palliation system etc.)
 Under-ground mining methods for sustainable mining operations
Technological aspects of sustainable mining (3 lectures)
 Mine planning and execution technologies
 Mine surveying technologies
Mine closure and post closure (5 lectures)
 Systematic / concurrent mine closure
 Final mine closure and post mine closure
Assurance and Reporting (2 lectures)
 SDF performance reporting and star rating
Sustainable mining – case studies (2 lectures)
Text book:

  1. SME Mining Engineering Hand Book (Third Edition) – Peter Darling
    Reference Books:
  2. Sustainable mining in India – Overview of legal and regulatory framework,
    technologies and best process practices – Indian Chamber of Commerce and Cuts –
    Centre for International Trade, Economics and Environment, 2018.
  3. Open Pit Mine Planning & Design – W. Hustrulid and M. Kuchta

Computational Geomechanics

Concept of stress and strain in rock: Analysis of Stress, Analysis of Strain,
Transformation of Stresses and strains, Principal stresses and stress invariants,
Mohr’s Circle of stress, Stress-Strain Relationships, Relationship between
Principal Stresses and Principal Strains, Plane Stress Conditions, Plane Strain
Conditions, Axisymmetric Conditions, Equation of Equilibrium, Compatibility
condition

Basics of Finite Element Method (FEM) with reference to Geomechanics

The Finite Element Method in One Dimensions

Two-Nodded Linear Element
Three-Nodded Quadratic Element
Discretization
Geometry and Nodal Connectivity
Integration of Element Matrices
Multielement Assembly
Boundary Conditions and Solution
Mathematical formulation and Computer Programming
Exercises

The Finite Element Method in Two Dimensions
Three-Nodded Linear Triangle
Six-Nodded Quadratic Triangle
Four-Nodded Bilinear Quadrilateral
Eight-Nodded Quadratic Quadrilateral
Discretization
Geometry and Nodal Connectivity
Integration of Element Matrices
Multielement Assembly
Boundary Conditions and Solution
Mathematical formulation and Computer Programming

The Finite Element Method in Three Dimensions
Eight-Nodded Linear Brick Element
Discretization
Geometry and Nodal Connectivity
Integration of Element Matrices
Multielement Assembly
Boundary Conditions and Solution
Mathematical formulation and Computer Programming

Rock and Rock Mass Failure Criteria:
Invariants of Deviatoric Stress, Mohr-Coulomb (MC) Criterion, Hoek-Brown
(HB) Criterion, Drucker-Prager Criterion
Theory and mathematical formulation

Strength and Deformability of Jointed Rock Mass
Fracture Strength of Jointed Rock Mass
Shear Strength of Rock Joint
Concept of Joint Compliance

References Books:

  1. Finite Element method: Concepts and Applications in Geomechanics by D. Deb
  2. Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Using MATLAB آ® and Abaqus 2013
  3. Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis, by David V. Hutton

Geospatial Technologies for Natural Resources

Introduction of Geospatial technology for identification, evaluation,
monitoring and management of natural resources.

Natural Resources Evaluation using geospatial tools: Geology,
Geomorphology, soils and Climatology

Mapping and Monitoring of natural resources: Thematic mapping,
information retrieval methods and spatial modelling

Role of Geo-spatial technology in mapping of land surface
deformation, mapping of Water Resources and Surface Water Bodies,
Recent Trends in Natural Resources Inventory, Land degradation
Mapping, Landslide Hazards Zonation and mapping of geophysical
events.

Management of natural resources: Geoscience, Hydrology, Land, and
Vegetation Ecology

Text Book

  1. Rencz, Andrew B. (Editor-in-Chief) (2004), “Remote Sensing for Natural Resource
    Management and Environmental Modeling”, Manual of Remote Sensing, Vol. 4. John
    Wiley.
    Reference Book
  2. Mahesh Gaur, C.B. Pandey and R.K. Goyal “Remote Sensing For Natural Resources
    Management & Monitoring”

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