Masters in Geo Exploration Engineering

Geological & Geophysical exploration for mineral deposits

Concepts and methods in mineral exploration: Different concepts used in mineral targeting, remote sensing application in mineral exploration, geological methods of prospecting and exploration.

Different stages of exploration: Objectives and tasks involved; preliminary studies and reconnaissance surveys, sampling, borehole planning and methods of reserve estimation

Exploration Geochemistry: Geochemical mobility and association of elements. Geochemical anomalies – primary and surficial dispersion patterns. Reconnaissance and detailed geochemical exploration, Geochemical soil surveys, drainage and hydrogeochemical surveys, geobotanical and biogeochemical prospecting

Environmental planning for exploration and mining: Environmental baseline data acquisition and documentation, nature and extent of environmental problems due to surface and underground mining – Air pollution, water pollution, visual impact, noise pollution. Reclamation and Mine waste management.
Introduction to geophysics: Geophysical methods used in mineral exploration, Geophysical anomalies and their sources, Ambiguity, Geophysical exploration practice

Data enhancement: Wavelength-based enhancement, Gradient-based enhancements, Amplitude-based enhancements

Petrophysics: Bulk-grain-texture, Importance of proper sampling, Rock and mineral density and magnetism, Physical properties and common geological processes, Importance of analysing the data in a geochemical/petrological/geological framework, Workflow for petrophysical data in a mineral systems context: analysis in context of lithology, stratigraphy, metamorphism/alteration, location

Recommended Text Books

  1. Gandhi, S. M., & Sarkar, B. C. (2016). Essentials of Mineral Exploration and Evaluation. Elsevier.
  2. Michael , D., and Mudge, S. T., 2014, Geophysics for the Mineral Exploration Geoscientist, Cambridge University Press
    Other references
  3. McCuaig, T.C. and Hronsky, J.M.A., 2014. The Mineral System Concept: The Key to Exploration Targeting Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication 18, pp. 153–175.

Tectonics and Structural Geological Methods for Exploration

Introduction to stress and strain in rocks

Mapping of surface exposures of folded areas: Projection of fold geometry; Concentric-arc method; Kink-style construction; Down-plunge projection method. Analysis of superposed terrains.

Mapping of subsurface structural geometry: Structural contour maps, isopach and isochore maps. Stratigraphic sections and Fence diagrams.

Analysis of areas with brittle deformation of rocks: Faults, Fractures and fracture types. Relationship with stress / strain. Concept of fault interactions and thrust belt geometry. Balanced cross-section.

Analysis of areas with ductile deformation of rocks: Development of ductile shear zones. Shear zone rocks. Shear sense criteria. Mechanisms of deformation.

Plate Tectonics: Concepts of plate tectonics and kinematics of plate motion

Evolution of different plate boundaries: Divergent / convergent / strike-slip boundaries and their petro-tectonic assemblages.

Plate Tectonic Settings and Mineral / Hydrocarbon accumulation.

Recommended Text Books:

  1. Fossen, H 2016 Structural Geology, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press.
    Other references:
  2. Davis, GH and Reynolds, SJ (1996) Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions (2nd Ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Ghosh, SK (1993) Structural Geology. Pergamon Press.
  4. Marshak, S and Mitra, G (1988) Basic Methods of Structural Geology. Prentice Hall.
  5. Ramsay, JG and Huber, MI (1987) The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology. Academic Press.
  6. Roberts, J.L. (1982) Introduction to Geological Maps and Structures. Pergamon Press

Petroleum Geophysics

Introduction and theory of potential field: Inverse square law and concept of potential; Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations; Earth’s gravity and magnetic field; Susceptibilities and densities of various rocks and minerals; factors affecting density and susceptibilities, density and susceptibility determination.

Instruments for potential field data acquisition: Gravity and Magnetic instruments for exploration; Land, shipborne and airborne gravity and magnetic surveys; Gravity data reduction- Drift, Latitude, Elevation, Free-air and Bouguer corrections. Free-air, Bouguer anomalies and Isostatic anomalies; various corrections applied to magnetic data-Diurnal, IGRF and Reduction to Pole transformation.

Data analysis and interpretation of potential field: Analytic methods for separation of regional and residuals; ambiguity in potential field interpretation and conditions for unique interpretation; wavelength filtering; upward and downward continuation; calculation of second vertical derivatives; gravity and magnetic anomalies due to simple and irregular shaped 2-D and 3-D bodies; Source-depth estimation techniques-Half width rules, Wenner and Euler deconvolution; Gravity and magnetic anomalies- salt domes and stratigraphic traps. Application of gravity and magnetic in hydrocarbon exploration- Structural identification, Basement depth mapping and reservoir monitoring.

Introduction of oil and gas cycle and seismic theory: Introduction of Hydrocarbon Exploration and its classification; Oil and Gas life cycle. Different terminology for hydrocarbon exploration, Understand seismic fundamentals and the advantages of seismic data in their hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation practice, Wave physics and fundamentals of seismic theory.

Seismic data acquisition technique: Methodology for 2D seismic reflection survey, Different kinds of shooting techniques & geometry, 3D survey designing for conventional & unconventional reservoir in hydrocarbon exploration, Advanced source and receiver system, Marine seismic data acquisition technique.

Introduction passive seismic data: Introduction of passive seismic survey and usefulness of this survey in hydrocarbon exploration, Case study for passive seismic in hydrocarbon exploration

Seismic data processing technique: Introduction of seismic data processing technique, workflow of standard seismic data processing for 2D and 3D seismic survey. Velocity gradients and turning waves, Aliasing & frequency-shifting in migration, Reverse-time migration

Well logging method for exploration: Introduction well logging technology in hydrocarbon exploration, conventional and special tools, Using of well log data in challenged reservoir such as detection of overpressure zone from well logs, detection of fractures from FMS/FMI, and Dipmeter and interpretation of Dipmeter logs etc.

Recommended Text Books

  1. Dobrin, M. B. and Savit, C., 1988, Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting, 4th Edition. McGraw Hill College Publishers.
    Other References:
  2. Parasnis, D. S., Applied Geophysics
  3. Rao, B. S. R. and Murthy, I. V. R., Gravity and Magnetic Methods of Prospecting
  4. Nettleton, L. L., Gravity and Magnetics in Oil prospecting
  5. Telford, W. M., Geldart, L. P., Sheriff N D & Keys, D. A., 1976 Applied Geophysics.
  6. Lowrie W. 2006. Fundamental of Geophysics. Cambridge University Press.
  7. Published Paper in different International and National peer reviewed Journals.

Geological and Geophysical Exploration for Mineral Deposits Practical

Megascopic identification of ore minerals: Identification of different ore and associated gangue minerals based on their physical properties.

Microscopic studies of major ore mineral assemblages.

Borehole planning and resource estimation methodology: Planning of borehole based on the geological and geochemical signatures.

Reserve estimation using the borehole data.

Data enhancement, Analysis of petrophysical data.

Interpretation of gravity maps for exploration targeting.

Interpretation of magnetic maps for exploration targeting.

Interpreting electrical data for exploration targeting.

Interpreting electromagnetic data for exploration targeting.

Integrated interpretation of data set over metamorphic orogenic deposits.

Practical Examination.

Recommended Book

  1. Reedman, J H. Techniques in Mineral Exploration: 1979. Applied Science Publishers Ltd., London.
  2. Peters, W.C. Exploration and Mining Geology (2nd Ed.); 1987. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
    Other References:
  3. Gandhi, S. M., & Sarkar, B. C. (2016). Essentials of Mineral Exploration and Evaluation. Elsevier

Tectonics and Structural Geological Methods for Exploration Practical

Stereographic projections: Planes, lines and angles.

Stereographic projections: Tilt, rotation and bore-hole data

Subsurface Mapping: Preparation and interpretation of fence diagram.

Subsurface Mapping: Preparation and interpretation of structure contour.

Subsurface Mapping: Preparation and interpretation of isopach / isochore maps.

Structural analysis: Construction of profiles of cylindrical folds.

Structural analysis: Analysis of areas of superposed folding.

Analysis of areas with faults: Depth to detachment, Balanced cross-section.

Analysis of areas with faults: Restoration of section

Analysis of shear zones and strain in rocks

Recommended Text Books

  1. Roland, S.M., Duebendorfer, E.M. and Schiefelbein, I.M. (2007) Structural Analysis and Synthesis. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford
    Other References:
  2. Marshak, S and Mitra, G (1988) Basic Methods of Structural Geology. Prentice Hall.
  3. Richard H. Groshong, Jr. (2006). 3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Quantitative Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Exploration of Coal, Coal Bed Methane, Shale Gas and Gas Hydrate

Coal exploration: Varieties of coal, Analyses of coal; Different methods of coal exploration: Photogeological and remote seam sensing, Geological, Sedimentological, Coal Petrological, Geophysical methods

Coal bed methane and shale gas: generation and accumulation; Micropore, Mesopore and macropore, cleat system

Sorption: principles, sorption isotherms – types and interpretation. CO2, CH4 and N2 adsorption – desorption, hysterisis, langmuir isotherm,Swelling and shrinkage of coal matrix, isotherm construction

CBM Reservoir analysis: CH4 content determination in coal seams; , comparison between conventional gas reservoir and coal bed methane reservoir, Permeability Klinkenberg, shrinkage, stress and depth effects on permeability, Darcy flow in cleats, sorption time, CBM reservoir characterization method, enhanced recovery.

CBM Water: CBM Water production and disposal, injection wells, carbon dioxide sequestration

Coalbed Methane Basins: Potential Indian coalbed methane basins and production, hydraulic fracturing of coal seams; CBM exploration

UCG:In-situ gasification

Gas hydrate: Gas hydrate, occurrence and origin; structure of gas hydrate, Types of gas hydrate

Geological setting: Geological setting of Hydrate; Stability of gas hydrates; Gas hydrate reservoir; Volume of gas in hydrate; inhibitors

Gas Hydrate Exploration: Geological exploration of gas hydrate; Prospect and potentialities of gas hydrate in India

Recommended Books:

  1. Coalbed Methane and Coal Geology-Eds. R.Gayer and I. Harris, Geological Society, London 1996.
  2. Shale Gas: Exploration and Environmental and Economic Impacts,2017 AM Dayal and D.Mani (eds) Elsevier.
    Other References:
  3. Natural Gas Hydrates- Sloan, E.D., J. Happel, and M.A. Hnatow (eds.), New York Academy of Science- New York, NY, (1994).

Rock Deformation Kinematics for Engineering Geology

Stress: Definition, units, classification, stress ellipsoid, stresses at a point, stress on a plane, Mohr circle construction and stress trajectory. Applications for slope stability studies and foundation analysis.

Strain Analysis: Measurement of deformation in nature, graphical representation by Flinn, Ramsay, Hossack and Mohr diagrams, progressive deformation, deformation paths and significance of geological structures, Strain measurement in engineering geology.

Experimental Deformation and Rheology: Behaviour of rocks under experimental conditions. Effects of confining pressure, pore fluid pressure, anisotropy, temperature and scale on rock deformation.

Development of Structures – I: Mechanisms of folding, and strain variations around folds. Development of secondary cleavage and lineations.

Development of Structures – II: Development of rock fractures. Conditions of fault development. Deformation mechanisms

Recommended Textbooks:

  1. Ghosh, S.K. (1993) Structural Geology. Pergamon Press.
  2. Means, W.D. (1976) Stress and Strain. Springer-Verlag.
    Other References:
    1 Passchier, C.W., and Trouw, R.A.J. (1996). Microtectonics, Springer.
    2 Ramsay, J.G. (1967) Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. McGraw-Hill.
    3 Ramsay, J.G. & Huber, M.I. (1983). The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology. Vol. 1. Academic Press.
    4 Ramsay, J.G. & Huber, M.I. (1987). The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology. Vol. 2. Academic Press.
    5 Twiss, R.J. & Moores, E.M. (1992) Structural Geology. W.H. Freeman & Company.
    6 Turcotte, D.L. & Schubert, G. (2002). Geodynamics (2nd Edition). Cambridge University Press.
    7 Van der Pluijm, B.A. & Marshak, S. (2004). Earth Structure: An Introduction to Structural Geology and Tectonics (2nd Edition). WW Norton & Company

Geophysical Methods for Groundwater Exploration

Introduction to Groundwater: Groundwater: Problems and definition. Definition of groundwater table. Definition of aquifers, classifications of aquifers; confined and un-confined, perched, aquiclude, aquitard, aquifuge etc. groundwater flow in unconfined aquifer.

Hydraulic Properties: Hydraulic properties of soils, porosity, permeability, transmissibility, hydraulic conductivities, empirical relations among hydraulic parameters. Geophysical methods for groundwater exploration.

Estimation of Hydraulic Properties: Geophysical methods and hydro-geochemical methods for aquifer parameter estimations and fracture characterization in various hydro-geological settings of India. Interpretation of hydro-geological sections.

Hydro-geological cycles and sustainability: Hydro-geological cycles, linkage to other geo-cycles, their importance to groundwater exploration and sustainability.

Geophysical Methods for Groundwater Management: Application of geo-physical methods (DC resistivity/Electromagnetic (EM), Well logging etc) and remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS) for groundwater management.

Groundwater Quality Assessment: Geophysical and hydro-geochemical methods for groundwater pollution assessment. Modelling of groundwater quality index, quantification of role of each geophysical/hydro-geochemical parameter for groundwater quality assessment.

Recommended Books

  1. Kirsch, R., 2006. Groundwater Geophysics- A Tool for Hydrogeology, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 500
  2. Parasnis, D.S., 1997. Principles of Applied Geophysics. Fifth edition, Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8 HN, UK
    Other References:
  3. Schwartz, W.F., Zhang, H., 2004. Fundamentals of Groundwater, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 583
  4. Telford, W.M., Geldart, L.P., Sheriff, R.E., 2004. Applied Geophysics, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press
  5. Todd, D. K., 1959. Groundwater hydrology, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp.535

Nanotechnology in Mineral and Hydrocarbon Exploration

Nano- ores: High resolution techniques for studying ore samples at the nanoscale; Nanomaterials in Earth Science

Trace elements systematics: Understanding nanoscale incorporation of trace metals in ore samples

Ore mobility: Colloidal transport, precipitation and isotopic fractionation in supergene settings

Ore depositional mechanism: The effects of atomic and nanoscale processes on ore stability

(B) Nanotechnology in Hydrocarbon Exploration

Introduction: Introduction, New forms of matter, Nanopowders and nanomaterials, nanopores and their properties, Structure of nanomaterials, Fullerene structures, New forms of carbon, carbon nanotubes (CNT)

Analytical methods: Analytical methods for studying nanomaterial: Scanning Tunneling Microscope, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Raman Spectroscopy

Processes: Processes for CNT production; Utilization of coal for production of CNT; Application of CNT- vacuum microelectronics, energy storage,

Applications: Dynamics of natural gas adsorption; Application of Nanotechnology: gas separation and storage; Removal of SOx and NOx, Coal Bed Methane, Petroleum exploration; CO2 sequestration and CO2 adsorption dynamics of nanopores; Molecular sieves; Nanoprobes and sensors.

Recommended Books:

  1. Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications : Mildred S. Dresslhaus, Gene Dresslhaus and Phaedon Avouris (Eds), 2001 (Springer)

Advanced Geostatistics and Exploration Economics

Problems and constraints of semi-variography associated with semi-variography, viz. anisotropy, non-stationarity, regularisation, presence of nugget effect and presence of trend. Extension, Estimation and Dispersion variances: definitions, methods of calculations.

Ordinary Kriging: definition, point/block estimation procedures; Effect Influence of Nugget variance on kriged weights, Effect of Nugget variance on kriged weights, Screen Effect, Negative kriging weights – causes, consequences and remedies; Practice of Semi-variogram model; Generalised geostatistical evaluation scheme.

Non-linear and Non-parametric Geostatistics: Lognormal, Disjunctive and Multi-Gaussian, Indicator and Probability kriging.

Geostatistical applications: optimisation of exploration drilling calculation of mineral inventory, establishment of grade-tonnage relations, calculation of planning cutoff grade; misclassified tonnages; geostatistical grade control plan.

Geostatistical Conditional Simulation – Theory, techniques and applications with special reference to Simulated Annealing.

Geostatistical case studies of selected mineral deposits.

Economic concepts for Exploration Strategy; Valuation of Mineral Properties: Valuation Techniques, Approaches and Methodology, viz. Cost approach: Appraised Value Method, Market approach, The Income Approach; Mineral Valuation Codes

Recommended Books:

  1. Agnerian, H., 1996a: Valuation of Exploration Properties. CIM Bulletin, v. 89, no. 1004, pp. 69-72.
  2. Armstrong, M. (1998) Basic Linear Geostatistics; Springer, Berlin.
    Other References:
  3. Baurens, S., 2010: Valuation of Metals and Mining Companies. Collaborative study of Univ. of Zurich, Swiss Banking Inst., and Dr.T. Hens., Nov. 2010, 81p.
  4. Bhappu, R. R., and Jaime Guzman, J. 1995: Mineral Investment Decision Making: A Study of Mining Company Practices. E & MJ, July 1995, pp. 36-38.
  5. Chiles, J.P. and Definer, P. (1999) Geostatistics – Modelling Spatial Uncertainty, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 695p.
  6. Clark, I. (1979) Practical Geostatistics, Elsevier Applied Science Publ., London.
  7. David, M. (1977) Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation, Elsevier Scientific Publ. Co., Amsterdam.
  8. David, M. (1988). Handbook of Applied Advanced Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation, Elsevier Sc. Publ., Amsterdam.
  9. Gandhi, S.M. and Sarkar, B.C. (2016) Essentials of Mineral Exploration and Evaluation, Elsevier, USA, 410 p.
  10. Goovaerts, P. (1997) Geostatistics for Natural Resources Evaluation, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 483p.
  11. Isaaks, E.H. and Srivastava, R. M. (1989) An Introduction to Applied Geostatistics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  12. Journel, A. G. and Huijbregts, C. J. (1978) Mining Geostatistics, Academic Press, London.
  13. Kitanidis, P.K. (1997) Introduction to Geostatistics – Applications in Hydrogeology, Cambridge Univ. Press, 249p.

Petroleum Exploration and Micropalaeontology

Hydrocarbon-organic or inorganic, Surficial indication of subsurface hydrocarbons

Molecular groups in hydrocarbons, Normal-, Iso- and Cycloparaffins, and NSO compounds, Specific gravity of hydrocarbon, Kerogen: classification and evolution of Kerogen, source and reservoir rocks

Petroleum traps: concept and classification; different types of traps, their genesis

Migration: Primary and secondary migrations

Tectonics and sedimentation history and structures of the important petroliferous basins of India (Bombay offshore, Cambay, Assam oil field, Krishna-Godavari basin).

Separation of foraminifera and their morphology

Foraminifera: use as paleoproductivity, paleooxygen, depositional depth, sea level fluctuation, biostratigraphic marker

Ostracod: Uses in hydrocarbon exploration

Recommended Books:

  1. Tissot, B. P., and Welte, D. H. (1984), Petroleum Formation and Occurrence. Springer-Verlag, Germany.
  2. North F. K. (1985), Petroleum Geology. Allen & Unwin Inc., London.
    Other References:
  3. Selley, R. C., Elements of Petroleum Geology. Academic Press, USA.
  4. Selly, R. C. and Sonnenberg, S. A., Elements of Petroleum Geology, Elsiver-Academic Press

Sedimentary Environment, Sequence Stratigraphy and Basin Analysis

Concept of sedimentary environments. Environmental parameters and their control. Classification of environments. Facies model and environmental reconstruction.

Shallow and deep water sandstone reservoir geometry. Alluvial environments. Marginal marine and neritic environment; deltaic models, Barrier bar-lagoon, coastal (interdeltaic) model – barrier islands and lagoons, tidal channels and tidal deltas, Submarine fan.

Carbonate sedimentation model, platform geometry.

Concept of tectonics and sedimentation.

Role of environmental analysis in petroleum exploration.

Introduction to basin analysis. Tectonic classification of sedimentary basins.

D Definitions and key concepts, base level changes, transgressions and regressions.

Sequence stratigraphic surfaces. Unconformity and correlative conformity

Systems Tracts: Lowstand, Transgressive, Highstand, Falling stage.

Hierarchy of sequences and bounding surfaces`

Recommended Books:

  1. Gary Nichols – Sedimentology & Stratigraphy, 2009, Blackwell Publishing Company, Malden, USA
  2. Richard C. Selley – Applied Sedimentology, 2000, Academic Press, California, USA.
    Other References:
  3. H.G. Reading – Sedimentary Environments: Processes, Facies and Stratigraphy, 1996, Blackwell Science Limited, Malden, USA.
  4. Hans-Erich Reineck and Indra Bir Singh – Depositional sedimentary environments: with reference to terrigenous clastics, 1992, Springer-Verlag.
  5. Winfried Zimmerle – Petroleum Sedimentology, 1995, Ferdinand Enke Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.
  6. B. Biju-Duval – Sedimentary Geology: Sedimentary Basins, Depositional Environments, Petroleum Formation, 2002, Editions Technip, Paris.
  7. Andrew Miall – Principles of Sedimentary Basin Analysis. Springer, New York, 1990.

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Geosciences

Artificial Intelligence (AI): Definition and application. Definition of Machine Learning (ML). The relation between AI and ML. ML classification algorithm: supervised, reinforcement and unsupervised learning: Principal component analysis (PCA), K-means, Decision Tree (DT), random forest (RF), Logistic regression (LR), Self-organizing map (SOM).

Artificial neural networks: Introduction to artificial neural networks (ANNs). Pre-processing and dimension reduction techniques for time/space series modeling/classification

Transfer Function: Types of transfer function, training, validation and test data set selection. Over-fitting, role of regularization, Calibration of model, cross-validation, early stopping techniques, bias-variance dilemma.

Optimization: ANNs optimization: local and global techniques. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy systems (ANFIS). Hybrid ML algorithm with ordinary kriging (OK), semi-variogram modeling, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for de-noising, interpolation and missing value prediction techniques.

Probabilistic methods: Probabilistic inference, Bayesian learning for artificial neural networks, evidence maximization (EA), hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC), Automatic relevance determination (ARD), Gaussian process (GP), Support vector machines (SVM).

Deep learning and Big data: Introduction to deep learning. Convolutional neural network (CNN): theory and practices. Application of ML algorithm for earth parameter estimation, classification and prediction of rock-type/litho-logy/litho-facies/mineral boundary for analysis of space-time geoscience data. Application of deep learning to “Big Data” analysis of geoscience

Recommended Books:

  1. Bishop C M, (1995) Neural networks for pattern recognition. Oxford University Press.
  2. Haykin, S. (1999). Neural networks – a comprehensive foundation (2nd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Other References:
  3. MacKay, D.J.C., (1992). A practical Bayesian framework for back-propagation networks. Neural Comput, 4 (3), 448–472.
  4. Poulton M, (2001) Computational Neural Networks for Geophysical Data Processing, Pergamon, Oxford, U.K.
  5. Van der Baan M, and Jutten C, (2000) Neural networks in geophysical applications, Geophysics, 65: 1032–1047.
  6. Wasserman, P.D. (1993) Advanced methods in neural computing. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY 10003

Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

Hyperspectral Remote Sensing (HRS) Sensors & Systems: Characteristics of multi-spectral, super-spectral and hyper-spectral sensor. Platforms: Airborne, Spaceborne, Laboratory and Hand-Held. Integration of Hyperspectral Data with LIDAR. HRS Instruments (Earth observation): AVIRIS, Hyperion, HyspIRI, PRISMA, PROBA, EnMAP, HIUSI, HYSI etc.

HRS Spectral libraries and corrections: Hughes phenomenon. Redundant and noisy bands, selective narrow bands. Spectral Libraries: USGS, ASTER, Field Campaigns. Correction of HRS data. Solar irradiance, Radiance, Reflectance, and Calibration. Reflectance Spectra: topographic and atmospheric effects. Methods of atmospheric correction. Equal Area Normalization, Flat Field Correction etc

Basic operations and Indices: Building 3D cube/hypercube, pixel/image spectra, target spectra, laboratory spectra, pure end member spectra. Position and shape of narrow absorption features. Operations over spectra such as finding Continuum, removing continuum, normalization, derivative, interpolation, smoothing, linear fit (slope and offset), parabolic fit etc. Common Hyperspectral Indices (for Vegetation, Soil, Mineral). Red-edge.

Hyperspectral Data Processing: Data mining methods: Feature Selection Methods, and Information Extraction Methods. Extraction of image spectra by pixel and unique absorption features. Spectral mixture analysis (unmixing), pure spectral signatures (end members), numerical inversion and abundance fractions. Linear and Non-linear spectral unmixing techniques. PC Transform, MNF Transform, PPI etc. Supervised and unsupervised classification methods. Matched (Derivative, Locally Adaptive) Filtering, SAM, Cross-Correlation, Linear Unmixing, SoM Classifier etc. ML Classification, SVM-based approaches. Iterative optimization methods: Clustering, ISODATA, K-means etc. Accuracy assessment.

Spectral indicators and their applications (Case Studies): HRS in mineral targeting and exploration, soil type, composition and characteristics, gemstone identification, acid mine drainage, environmental degradation/stress indicators, effect of metals/heavy metals on vegetation, biophysical and biochemical properties of vegetation (Forest, Wetland, Crops, species identification, pigment(s), nitrogen, water content, stress, pests and disease), Global Change Studies.

HRS of Planets and Moons in Solar System: Hyperspectral Missions and Case Studies of Moon, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Titan etc.

Recommended Textbooks:

  1. Borengasser, M., Hungate, W. S., & Watkins, R. (2007). Hyperspectral Remote Sensing: Principles and Applications. CRC Press.
  2. Chang, C. I. (2007). Hyperspectral Data Exploitation: Theory and Applications. Wiley.
    Other References:
  3. Chang, C. I. (2013). Hyperspectral Data Processing: Algorithm Design and Analysis. Wiley.
  4. Eismann, M. T. (2012). Hyperspectral Remote Sensing. SPIE.
  5. Kalacska, M., & Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A. (2008). Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Tropical and Sub-Tropical Forests. CRC Press.
  6. Sun, D. W. (2010). Hyperspectral Imaging for Food Quality Analysis and Control. Elsevier Science.
  7. Thenkabail, P. S., & Lyon, J. G. (2016). Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Vegetation. CRC Press

Engineering Geophysics

Seismic method: Huygens’ Principle, Elastic constants, effect of depth and age, Snell’s law, Seismic waves, Seismic reflection and refraction, Analysis of time and distance graphs, Non-parallel interface, multilayered models, Velocity inversion, data correction. Application of seismic method to engineering technology and mineral exploration.

Gravity method: Fundamentals of gravity method, Gravity instruments, gravity data acquisition, Gravity data processing, Correction/reduction, Free-air and Bouguer anomalies, Rock densities of rocks and minerals, gravity response of simple shapes and interpretation of gravity anomaly. Application of gravity method to engineering technology and mineral exploration.

Magnetic method: Fundamentals concepts of Magnetic method, geomagnetic field, Remanent Magnetism, Magnetic susceptibilities of rocks and minerals, Magnetic instruments, Magnetic data acquisition, Magnetic data processing and Correction/reduction, Magnetic anomaly and interpretation of magnetic anomaly. Application of magnetic method to engineering technology and mineral exploration.

Geoelectrical method: Fundamental concepts of geoelectrical method, Archie’s law point current electrode on homogeneous Earth, Heterogeneous medium, Resistivity profiling and sounding, Resistivity data acquisition, Processing and its interpretation. Two/Three layered structures, Interpretation techniques of Electrical data, quantitative interpretation. Application of geoelectrical method to engineering technology and mineral exploration

Fundamental concepts of electromagnetic method, electromagnetic data acquisition, processing and interpretation. Application of electromagnetic method to engineering technology and mineral exploration.

Recommended Books:

  1. William Lowrie (2007), Fundamental of Geophysics
  2. Telford W. M. (1990) Applied Geophysics, Cambridge University Press.
    Other References:
  3. Dobrin, M. and Savit, C. (1988), Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting, McGraw-Hill Book Co.
  4. Heiskanen, and Veining Meinsez (1958), Gravity Field of the Earth

Well Logging and Seismic Reservoir Characterization

Introduction to oil and gas life cycle: Brief overview on field development, Difference between oil and gas field development and strategies. Brief idea about geophysical data acquisition, processing and interpretation technique towards identification of reservoir in development phase of hydrocarbon exploration.

Well logging method: Well logging Technique and its role in Hydrocarbon exploration. Borehole environment. Open Hole Logging Tools: a) Latero (Resistivity measurement), SP, Conductivity method (Induction); b) Porosity measurement tools: Density-Porosity, Neutron Porosity, Sonic Porosity; c) Caliper and Correlation log (Gamma ray); d) Electrofacies analysis techniques to identify various sedimentary features (regressive, transgressive, sandbars, channels, delta deposits) and environment using various correlation techniques; e) Formation evaluation from open hole logs

Introduction to reservoir engineering method: Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering, Basic rock and fluid properties (e.g. porosity, saturation, gas-oil ratio (GoR), gas solubility (Rs), formation volume factor (FVF), etc.), Volumetric analysis, reserves, reservoir drive mechanisms, recovery factor and static fluid distribution in hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Advanced seismic method for reservoir characterization: Usefulness of pre and post stack seismic data, Multi resolution analysis for computational seismic study, Different type of seismic inversion for reservoir characterization and its benefits, Reservoir characterization for thin bed reservoir., AVO/AVA principles, Well data and seismic data preconditioning for seismic characterization, AVO modelling, AVO interpretation, Case study on AVO – onshore & offshore, Quantitative reservoir property prediction: lithologies and fluids, Lithology/fluid classification, Stratigraphic analysis of 2D and 3D seismic data for clastic and carbonate rocks, Seismic model for 3D salt and overthrust.

Modelling for conventional and unconventional reservoir: Introduction of Reservoir Modelling, Conceptual Development of Geo-cellular Model – Static & Dynamic Model & case study, Sedimentary Model development for Deep Water reservoir, Current technology development for Gas Hydrate and Deep Water reservoir production, Introduction of geo-cellular model for CBM production

Introduction to 4D seismic: Introduction of 4D/time lapse seismic for field development strategy 4D seismic monitoring of reservoir production through characterization.

CCS: Introduction of CCS, Scope, Objective and Requirement for Oil and Gas reservoir.

Case study: a) Reservoir characterization of sub-salt in deep water clastics channel system; b) Prediction of reservoir parameters from seismic for carbonate rock

Recommended Books:

  1. Cosse, R. (1993), Basics of Reservoir Engineering, Editions Technip.
  2. Craft, B. C and Hawkins, M. (1991), Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering, Prentice Hall.
    Other References:
  3. Muskat, Flow of Homogeneous Fluids
  4. Nettleton, L. L., Gravity and Magnetics in Oil prospecting
  5. Parasnis, D. S., Applied Geophysics
  6. Published Paper in different International and National peer reviewed Journals
  7. Rao, B. S. R. and Murthy, I. V. R., Gravity and Magnetic Methods of Prospecting
  8. Sheriff, R.E., Reservoir Geophysics
  9. Telford, W. M., Geldart, L. P., Sheriff ND keys, D. A., Applied Geophysics
  10. William Lowrie, Fundamental of Geophysics. Cambridge University Press.
  11. William, D., McCain, Jr., The Properties of Petroleum Fluids.
  12. Published Paper in different International and National peer reviewed Journals

Geotechniques of Dams, Tunnels and Underground Space

Types of dams and Geological Site Characterization of Dams

Dam Foundation problems

Treatment of Foundations of Concrete, Rock-Fill and earth dam

Treatment of Foundation seepage

Reservoir induced seismicity-case studies

Types of Tunnelling and Tunnelling methods

Conditions of Tunnelling Ground and controlling techniques

Geohydrological hazards in tunnelling and underground space

Stability in tunnels and underground space: Support requirements

Geotechnical problems associated with tunnels (including stand-up time,Bridging capacity of rocks, overbreaks, arching action)

Recommended Textbooks:

  1. Fell R. McGregor, P., Stapledon, D. Bell, G., Foster, M (2015). Geotechnical Engineering of Dams, 2nd Edition, CRC Press.
  2. Lunardi. P (2008). Design and construction of tunnels. Springer.
    Other References:
  3. Guglielmetti, V., Grasso,P. Mahtab, A., Xu, S. (2008). Mechanized tunneling in Urban areas. Methodology and Construction Control

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