Masters in Excavation Engineering

Advance Mathematics

Linear Algebra & Matrices: Linear Vector Spaces, Linear dependence, basis and dimensions, Four fundamental subspaces, Linear transformations, Transformation from one linear space to another, Inner product space and applications, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, diagonalization, complex matrices, similarity transformations, matrix norms & condition number, iterative methods for solving AX = b.
Numerical Techniques: Review of the topics in elementary numerical analysis,
Basic Principles, Construction of approximate integration formulae using method of undetermined weights & nodes, Gauss- Legendre formula, Gauss Chebyshiv
formula, Gauss-Hermite formula, Errors in numerical integration.
Finite Difference Methods : Approximation of derivatives (Ordinary & Partial) in terms of pivotal values: Application to solve

  1. Boundary value problems in ordinary differential equations
  2. Boundary value problems in partial differential equations: Laplace equation, one dimensional heat equation and one dimensional wave equation.
    Introduction to Mathematical Modeling: Study of cases of modeling through
    linear equations and differential equations.
  3. Advanced Engineering Mathematics, R.K. Jain, S.R.K. Iyengar, Narosa
  4. Linear Algebra and its Applications , Gilbert Strang, Thomson India Edition 5th
  5. Applied Mathematics, Francis B. Hilderbrand ,Prentice Hall of India
  6. Numerical methods for scientific and engineering Computations ,Jain, M.K. , Iyengar S.R.K., and Jain, R.K., New Age Publications

Geo mechanics

Soil mechanics:Advanced soil properties Mechanical behaviour of soil, Analysis and constitutive models Basic dynamics and analysis of strong motion data, Earth pressures, Earthquake geotechnical engineering, Embankments and earthworks, Engineering seismology Foundations, Ground profiles and ground investigation, Strength and deformation
Geological structures in rockmass, Objective and methods of rockmass characterization Rock Mass Classification, Methods of determination of strength and deformability of rock and rockmass
Failure criteria for rock and rockmass, Mechanics of rock fracture, Failure mechanism of excavation in rock, Influence of anisotropy and discontinuity on rock behaviour
Pre-mining state of stress: sources, methods of determination and presentation, Stress distributions around single and multiple openings in rocks: methods estimation factors, Propagation of elastic waves in rock medium and dynamic behaviour of rocks influencing stress concentration; zone of influence of an excavation: effect of planes of weaknesses and shape of excavations; delineation of zone of failure
Investigation of Rock Condition, Selection of opening shape and size, geological and geophysical investigations, 3D geological logs, preparation of Stereo-nets
Introduction to mechanics of rock cutting, drilling

  1. Karl Terzaghi, Ralph B. Peck, Gholamreza Mesri Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice
  2. HUDSON, J.A., Rock mechanics series William A. Hustrulid, Michael K. McCarter, Dirk J.A. Van Zyl, Slope Stability in Surface Mining Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc
  3. HUDSON, J.A. & HARRISON, J.P. (1997). Engineering Rock Mechanics: an Introduction to the Principles. Elsevier.
  4. Brady, B. H. G. & Brown, E. T. (1993):Rock Mechanics For Underground Mining, 2nd Edition, Chapman & Hall
  5. Goodman, R. E. (1989):Introduction to Rock Mechanics, 2nd Edition, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  6. Hoek, E and Bray, J (1981):Rock Slope Engineering, 3rd Edition, The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London

Underground Excavation Equipment

Introduction to various types of drilling equipment for underground excavations;
Roadheading machines – road headers, dintheaders, and Tunnel Boring Machines; their selection, construction &. operation for underground excavation
Shaft drills and mucking system; shaft boring machines, raise boring machines,
Introduction to loading and transportation techniques; different types of loading machines, LHDs SDLs, LPDTs, CAVO loader, rocker shovel loader, gathering arm loader
Introduction to automation, robotics and radio control operations in excavation equipment, Fore-poling machines, Shotcrete machines, grouting pump
House Keeping of equipment, performance optimization, Cost and downtime management, optimization of equipment utilization, workshop equipment management.

  1. H.L.Hartman SME, Mining Engineering Hand Book, Society of Mining Engg, USA
  2. Hustrulid, Underground mining methods, SME

Surface Excavation Technology & Equipment

Introduction to surface excavating methodologies and equipment
Classification of surface excavating equipment systems vis-a-vis unit operations,
Equipment selection criteria and procedures; application and selection guidelines for different types of equipment
Dozers. rippers, blasthole drills, shovels, draglines, scrapers, bucket wheel excavators, continuous surface miners, continuous face miners: construction, application and capacity
Front-end loaders, dumpers, conveyors and ropeways: construction, application and capacity
Basic operations. Maintenance, scheduling and capacity utilization, applicability and selection considerations

  1. Howard L. Hartman. SME, Mining Engineering Hand Book, Society of Mining Engg, USA
  2. Hustrulid, Underground mining methods, SME publications
  3. Hustrulid, Open cast mining

Blasting Technology in Excavation

Chemistry and physics of explosives; properties of explosives
Explosives and blasting agents; initiation and priming systems bulk explosives; explosive selection
Rock breakage by explosives theories, laws of comminution, methods for prediction and assessment of fragmentation;
Design of blasting rounds for surface and underground excavation, special blasting techniques- including secondary breakage, pre-splitting, destress blast technique, Lake tap design
Profiling, trenching, casting and demolition, environments considerations, handling and storage of explosives control of noise, vibration, air blast and fly rock
Blasting optimization, intelligent blast design, blast economics, computer applications in blasting

  1. Dr. Calvin Konya, Rock Blasting and Overbreak Control
  2. Stig o Olofsson, Applied explosive technology for construction and mining, APPLEX P O Box 71 S-640 43 ÄRLA SWEDEN

Tunnel & Cavern Engineering

Types of underground excavations: tunnel, shaft, cavern, etc
Parameters influencing location of a tunnel and its design, planning and site -investigation for tunneling, methods of tunneling; selection of method of excavation
Tunneling in soft ground, Tunneling in rock by road heading machines: cutting principles, method of excavation, performance limitations and problems
Tunneling in rock by tunnel boring machines: method of excavation, performance, limitations and problems, TBM application in coal mines, TBM for soft formations, micro- tunneling
Excavation of large tunnels, special storage and underground space, caverns for hydro-electric projects No-Dig technology, NATM & NTM methods, short life excavations, tunneling under water bodies
Cut and cover tunnels, metro tunnels Hazards in tunneling.
Supports in tunnels Tunnel services: ventilation, drainage and lighting and maintenance

  1. Bickel, J.O., Kuesel, T.R., and King, E.H., 1996, Tunnel Engineering Handbook (Second Edition), Chapman & Hall, 544 pages.
  2. Bieniawski, Z..T., 1992, Design Methodology in Rock Engineering, A.A. Balkema, 196 pages. rtman : SME Mining Engineering Handbook
  3. Whittaker, B. N. and Frith, R. C. (1990): Tunneling: Design, Stability and Construction, London: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy
  4. Hoek, E and Brown, E.T. (1980):Underground Excavation in Rock, The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London
  5. Mahtab, M.A., and Grasso, P., 1992, Geomechanics Principles in the Design of Tunnels and Caverns in Rocks, Elsevier Press, 250 pages.
  6. Bieniawski, Z. T. (1984):Rock Mechanics Design in Mining and Tunneling, Balkema

Geo Environmental Engineering

Environment management in excavation, design of ventilation, lighting, emergency management.
Land, water and air pollution issues due to excavations Contaminated Land, Ground Contamination due to excavations The Land Environment, Land Environment Sensitivity and Tolerance Land Suitability and Use Wastes and Waste Streams
Nature of Soils: Soil Materials in the Land Environment, Soil Materials Physical Properties, Soil-Water Systems
Pollutants of Major Concern, Gas Detection, Water contamination or loss due to excavation Dust, SPM
Disposal of debris and its management
EIA, ERA, EMP, emergency & disaster management in excavations.

  1. Lakshmi N. R., Hilary I. I., (2000):Geoenvironmental Engineering: Principles and Applications, Marcel Dekker
  2. Car, Y. B. and Daniel, D. E., (1995):Geoenvironment 2000 – Characterization, Containment, Remediation, and Performance in Environmental Geotechnics, Geotechnical Special Publication No. 46, ASCE Press, New York, USA.
  3. Bear, J. and Verruijt, A. (1990):Modeling Groundwater Flow and Pollution, Reidel P.C., Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  4. Bedient, P. B., Rifai, H. S. and Newell, C. H. (1994):Ground water contamination- Transport and Remediation, PTR Prentice Hall, NJ, USA.
  5. Daniel, D. E., (1993):Geotechnical Practice for Waste Disposal, Chapman & Hall, London.

Modelling Techniques & computer applications

Introduction to modeling, physical. Mathematical , computer modeling
Mathematical modeling, methods with different techniques,
Excavation modeling with DTM and block models
Introduction to use of Finite Element method, boundary element method in modeling, finite difference method
Simulation, Virtual reality in excavation, study of excavation design software
Application of software in design, planning and scheduling of excavations
Preparation of computer models using available software for excavations

  1. Rachez, C. Detournay, and R. Hart (Editors). FLAC and numerical modeling in geomechanics 2001 Proceedings of the Second International FLAC Symposium, Lyon, France, 29–31 October 2001. D. Billaux, X. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam,
  2. Whittaker, B. N. and Frith, R. C. (1990): Tunneling: Design, Stability and Construction, London: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy
  3. Hoek, E and Brown, E.T. (1980):Underground Excavation in Rock, The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London
  4. Bieniawski, Z. T. (1984):Rock Mechanics Design in Mining and Tunneling, Balkema

Contract and Construction Management

Introduction to preparation of contract, clauses, Drafting of contracts
Legal provisions of contract, Negotiations, bids preparation
Case of excavation and construction contract, Use of software for contract and construction management
Project management, schedule preparation, Time management in work execution Construction management practice
Use of software for contract and construction management, work scheduling, resource allocation
Relevant Codes for excavations, permissions from various government and other agencies, Finance and economics, Financial risk managements, project scheduling, costing.

  1. Dave Roberts, Pipe and Excavation Contracting, Published by: Craftsman Book Company P.O. Box 6500, Carlsbad, CA 92018, www.craftsmanbook. com/cbcstore/
  2. Excavating and Grading Handbook

Ground Improvement Engineering

Basics, purpose, principles. Ground improvement techniques for excavation, types and application
Support classification for surface and subsurface excavations, Rock bolts, cable bolts, side stitching, rock binding
Geo-synthetics: geo-textile application, soil improvement technologies, Ground retaining techniques, diaphragm walls, soil stabilization: stone columns, sand piles, dynamic compaction, binding,. Piling
Methods of Grouting, Jet grouting, shotcretting, guniting
Supports in tunnels and caverns, linings, design
Design of slope in various rock conditions, Slope stability, slope failure analysis
Dump design and management

  1. M.P.Moseley, Ground improvement, Blackie Academic& Professionals, CRC, Press Inc., USA, Canada
  2. C. Houlsby; Construction and Design of Cement Grouting : A Guide to Grouting in Rock Foundations(April 1990) John Wiley & Sons (Sd); ISBN: 0471516295

Slope Engineering

Introduction to the basic mechanics of slope failure. Slope failure mechanisms and their analysis. Modes of rock slope failure Slope formation techniques.
Geologic data collection, Defect, discontinuities, Engineering properties of discontinuities, rock mass shear strength, Stress-nets
Elements of slope and design parameters. Pit slope design, Infinite slope Block analysis Method of slices Design charts Seismic analysis Effective and total stress analysis Groundwater effects, Water water pressure, seepage forces and quantity of seepage
Land slides, causes and processes, Post failure analysis of slopes, data collection and interpretation
Slope stability: Stabilization techniques, Earth retaining structures, Reinforced embankments, Embankments on soft ground, Instrumentation and Slope monitoring techniques and interpretation, Slope stability problems in waste disposal, Construction excavations
Numerical modeling for slope design, Limiting equilibrium method, design of slope using computer software, Computer program for slope stability analysis

  1. Hoek, E and Bray, J (1981):Rock Slope Engineering, 3rd Edition, The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London
  2. HUDSON, J.A., Rock mechanics series William A. Hustrulid, Michael K. McCarter, Dirk J.A. Van Zyl, Slope Stability in Surface Mining Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc
  3. HUDSON, J.A. & HARRISON, J.P. (1997). Engineering Rock Mechanics: an Introduction to the Principles. Elsevier

Advanced Engineering Geology

Review of basic aspects of applied geology commonly employed in engineering geology, including map construction and interpretation, section construction, three-dimensional reconstructions, rock and mineral identification, interpretation of borehole logs, stereonets
Ground profiles and ground investigation: Significance of ground profiles to engineering design, their origin in various geological settings, their investigation, the engineering description of soils and rocks in profiles, and the interpretation of profiles. Design and execution of ground investigation, the recording of data, its assessment and use in creating a conceptual model of the ground, and the implications of such data for the costs and benefits of further investigation.
Engineering geology of soils and rocks: Formation, accumulation and geotechnical characters of soils found on land and in rivers, estuaries and lakes, in tropical, arid and glacial environments. Formation and geotechnical character of intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, and the problem of rock-head.
Neotectonic processes and brittle fracture in rock: The character and origin of neotectonic processes, geological evidence of such processes, means of dating and determining their rate of movement. Nature of jointing, generation of fractures and their relationship to burial, exhumation and in situ stress.
Hydrogeological principles: The definition, measurement and quantification of head, the natural parameters controlling hydraulic conductivity and the transmissivity, storage and quality of groundwater, quantification of flow in pores and fissures by various methods, the assessment of field parameters, wells and water supply, the control of groundwater in surface and underground works.
Remote sensing and GIS : General character of remotely sensed images relevant to the ground investigation of naturally occurring phenomena. Includes aerial photography, airborne line-scan systems and satellite imagery. Processing of remotely sensed digital data for engineering purposes. Introduction to Geographical Information System, preparation of GIS for engineering design
Engineering seismology : Introduction. Earth structure and plate tectonics, strain accumulation, elastic rebound and faulting. Energy release and seismic waves. Physical parameters of the earthquake source: hypocentre, magnitude, seismic moment and fault plane solution. Geological and seismological input for seismicity evaluation on magnitude-frequency relations.. Seismic hazard analysis and estimation of design ground motions. Ground rupture, tsunamis. Basic concepts of codes for earthquake-resistant design.


Judd, Engineering geology

Bell, Engineering geology

Instrumentation in Excavation

Introduction to various instruments in excavation, electronic and manual data generation
Bore hole logging system, acoustic/ultrasonic instruments, ground penetrating radars
Stress and strain, deformation, convergence measuring instruments, Seismic instruments
Concrete testers, non-destructive instruments for excavations, Instrumentation for performance monitoring
Instrumentation for investigations:
Field investigations for selection and design of mechanical excavators and drilling systems
Data loggers, Automated data acquisition, analysis and interpretation

  1. Whittaker, B. N. and Frith, R. C. (1990): Tunneling: Design, Stability and Construction, London: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy
  2. Hoek, E and Brown, E.T. (1980):Underground Excavation in Rock, The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London
  3. Bieniawski, Z. T. (1984):Rock Mechanics Design in Mining and Tunneling, Balkema.
  4. John Dunnicliff Geotechnical Instrumentation for Monitoring Field Performance Lexington, Massachusetts

Grouting Technology

Principles, purpose and application of grouting, viscosity and thixotropy of grout, flow of grout in cracks, pressures for grouting, utility for control of water movement, strengthening of both soil and rock, and structural applications.
Grouts: Types of grout : cement, chemical, cellular grout, silica fume modified grouts and microfine cement, additives: properties, application, setting of grout, durability
Grouting : Grouting techniques : injection techniques, jet, displacement, and permeation. Mix preparation, grout quality. Procedure of grouting assessment during and after grouting, Water testing in grout holes, Monitoring and control methods. Grouting in surface and sub-surface excavations
Grouting equipment: drilling and grouting equipment, grouting mixers, agitators, pumps, valves, pressure gauges, fittings on grout holes, grouting arrangement
Site investigation, geology, permeability and grouting design Grouting in stressed rock, computer aided grouting
Compaction, Remediation, and Testing of grout : field and laboratory studies related to grouting materials, Grouting verification methods and related technologies. Compaction grouting : mechanisms; theories, practice; effect of fines in compaction grouts. Remediation grouting: mine subsidence, cement grouting of dam joints.

  1. C. Houlsby; Construction and Design of Cement Grouting : A Guide to Grouting in Rock Foundations(April 1990) John Wiley & Sons (Sd); ISBN: 0471516295
  2. Robert Bowen, Grouting in engineering practice

Concrete and shotcrete Technology

Concrete Making Materials: Aggregates classification, IS Specifications, Properties, Grading, Methods of combining aggregates, specified, grading, Testing of aggregates, Fibers. Cement, Grade of cement, Chemical composition, Testing of concrete, Hydration of cement, Structure of hydrated cement, Special cements – Water Chemical admixtures, Mineral admixture.
Mix Design: Principles of concrete mix design, Methods of concrete mix design, Testing of concrete. Aggregates, Mixing water and admixtures, Formwork, Reinforcement, Concrete production (including ready-mixed concrete)
Concrete: Properties of fresh concrete, Hardened concrete, Strength, Elastic properties, Creep and shrinkage, Variability of concrete strength. Materials for concrete, Receiving and storing materials, Batching, mixing. Transporting, placing and compacting, Finishing and surface preparation, Protection and curing, Formwork and reinforcement, Sand-cement mixes, durability of concrete
Special Concrete: Light weight concrete, Fly ash concrete, Fibre refinforced concrete, Polymer Concrete, Super plasticised, concrete, Epoxy resins and screeds for rehabilitation – Properties and Applications – High performance, Mass concrete, Hot and cold weather concreting, Defects and repairs, Concrete pavements, Introduction to prestressed concrete, Vaccum dewatering – underwater concrete.
Concrete Floors on the Ground: Design philosophy, Subgrades and subbases, Joints.
Shotcrete technology: Introducing sprayed concrete, Materials for shotcrete including fibres, Properties of shotcrete (fresh and hardened), Mix design, Batching and mixing, Quality control, Equipment selection and maintenance, Planning and logistics

  1. Neville, A.M., Properties of Concrete , Pitman Publishing Limited, London.
  2. Shetty M.S., Concrete Technology, S.Chand and Company Ltd. Delhi.
  3. Rudhani G., Light Weight Concrete Academic Kiado, Publishing Home of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1963.

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