Masters in Dam Safety & Rehabilitation Engineering

Assessing and Managing Risks Associated with Dams

I Overview of Dams Risk Assessment and Management: Smart Governance and
risk management, Risk analysis Formal Framework, Risk-informed decision-making
and its importance in an integral Dam Safety Management Program, Dam Safety
Program Fundamentals in USA, Spain, Argentina, Brazil etc.
2 Basis for a Risk-Informed Dam Safety Management Program for India: Dam
failure risks worldwide, Dam failure risks In India. Lessons leamt from Risk
Assessment and Management worldwide.
“I .J Initial Risk-Based Screening: Purpose of a risk-based screening tool, elements of
the risk-based screening tool, brief reference to the Hazard Classification in India,
dam safety inspections reports and DHARMA. Practical workshop or hands-on
4 Identification of Failure Modes: PFMA (Potential Failure Mode Analysis), types of
failure modes and loading scenarios, the purpose of the failure mode identification,
Identification and classification of Failure Modes, Identification of investigation and
surveillance needs, Proposal of risk reduction actions. Practical workshop or handson
5 Semi-Quantitative Risk Analysis: Introduction, scope, and limitations of a semi-
quantitative risk analysis (Failure probability categories Vs. Consequences
categories), Prioritization of new studies or instrumentation. Practical workshop or

6 Quantitative Risk Assessment: Introduction, scope and limitations. Incremental
Risk Concept, Failure modes structure, Risk model input data, Levels of Detail in
Risk Calculation input data, Event tree concept and calculation examples, Common
Cause Adjustment, Risk Calculation in dam systems, Risk Representation (FN and
FD Graphs). Uncertainty analysis in risk calculations. Practical workshop or handson
7 Risk Evaluation (Quantitative Risk Assessment): Introduction, scope and
lim itations on Risk Evaluation process. Tolerability Guidelines Worldwide
(ANCOLD, USBR, USACE, other countries/agencies), Proposal and justification of
Tolerability Guidelines for India, Definition and prioritization of risk reduction
actions, Risk reduction principles, Relation between quantitative risk models and
DRIP Guidelines. Practical workshop or hands-on exercise.
8 Portfolio Risk Management: Introduction, Risk-informed decision-making inputs,
risk-informed decision-making process (conditioning aspects). Structure of Reports
on Dam Safety Risk Assessment. Practical workshop or hands-on exercise.
9 Risk Governance: Introduction, Capacity building, Risk Communication, Overall
Regulatory Framework, Review and quality assurance, Other Factors Affecting
Decision Making- Climate Change, Inter-State Issues etc.
Institutional Framework in Dam Safety: Perspective of Institutional framework in
Switzerland, USA, Australia; Existing Dam Safety Monitoring Mechanism in lndia-
Dam Safety Organization (DSO), National Committee on Dam Safety (NCDS),
National Committee on Seismic Design Parameters (NCSDP); Dam Safety
Legislation In Ind ia-Historical Development, Important Provisions of the Dam
Safety Bill 2019.

Name of AuthorslBookslPublisher

I. Zhang L., Peng M., Chang D. and Xu Y., “Dam Failure Mechanisms and Risk 1976
Assessment”, John Wiley & Sons

  1. Hartford D. N. and Baecher G. B., “Risk and Uncertainty JJ1 Dam Safety”, 2004
    Thomas Telford, Ltd
  2. Raftery J., Loosemore M. and Reilly c., “Risk Management In 2006
    Projects”, United Kingdom: Tayor & Francis
  3. Rodriguez Valladares M., “Overview of Credit Risk Portfolio 2011
    Management”, (n .p.): FT Press Delivers
  4. “Risk Analysis, Dam Safety, Dam Security and Critical Infrastructure 2011
    Management”. Netherlands: CRC Press .
  5. Solozhentsev E., “Risk Management Technologies: With Logic and 2012
  6. Probabilistic Models”, Netherlands: Springer Netherlands
  7. “Hydrology of Disasters”, Netherlands: Springer Netherlands 2012
  8. Iverson D., “Strategic Risk Management: A Practical Guide to Portfolio Risk 2013
  9. Management”, Germany: Wiley
  10. WagnerR., “The Handbook of Project Portfolio Management”, United 2018
  11. Kingdom: Taylor & Francis
  12. “Guidelines Assessing and Managing Risks Associated with Dams”, DRIP, 2019
  13. DoWR, MoJ, Gol, New Delhi

Management and its implementation Concepts

1 Overview of Disaster Management and Flood Mapping: Disaster
management cycle, Disaster Management Policies in India. Potential Uses of
Flood Mapping in brief, Tiered Flood Modelling and Mapping Approach in
2 Flood Risk Associated with Dams: Types of Dams, Dam Failure concept,
Estimation of consequences.
3 Disaster Mitigation: Warning and evacuation, do’s and dont’s about disaster,
damage survey for designing aid package, detailed survey for reconstruction,
repair and retrofitting, post disaster survey, long term measures, codal practices.
4 Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applied to
Emergency Preparedness and flood Mapping: Techniques, uses, importance,
Planning the Mapping Process, Geographical Information System (GIS), GIS
Software, Practical workshop or hands-on exercises
5 Dam Hazard Classification Framework in India: CWC Guidelines;
Assessment of the Area Affected by Dam break; Failure Scenarios,
Classification of the Dams 111 India Based on Hazard Potential; Potential Consequences Index Definition and Calculation Process (Additive-weighting
scheme), Potential Implications of Hazard Potential Classification; Requirement
for Emergency Action Plans (EAP) and their revision. Practical workshop or
hands-on exercises.
Emergency Action Plans Preparation: Emergency management Organisation
(Stakeholders), Relationship of the EAP document and the O&M manual.
Establ ishment of emergency response protocols/procedures, Notification
Flowcharts, levels of alerts and associated thresholds, preparedness
actions/protocols, local evacuation plan [shelters, evacuation routes, warning
time], communications networks, emergency resources and equipment. Practical
workshop or hands-on exercises.
Emergency Action Plans Implementation: Stakeholder’s Consultation
Meeting (discussion-based exercise), mock-drill or table top exercise for EAP
testing and improvement. Design of an incident management system, types, and
design process of a warning system network in the flood plain. Integration of the
Dam EAP with the District/State Disaster Management Plan. Practical
workshop or hands-on exercises.
Environmental Management: Introduction; Existing Policies and Legal
Framework; Procedure for Environment, Forest and Wildlife Clearances; EIA
Procedure; Environmental Management and Control; External Funding
Agency’s Policy and Requirements on Environmental and Social Safeguards

Name of AuthorslBookslPublisher

l. “National Disaster Management Guidelines”, Government of India 2007
2 . Baas S., “Disaster Risk Management Systems Analysis: A Guide 2008
Book”, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

  1. “Swaziland Disaster Risk Reduction National Action Plan”, 2008 to 2008
    20 IS. Eswatini: Swaziland Government
  2. MacDonald W. and Ritchie L. A., “Enhancing Disaster and Emergency 2010
    Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Through Evaluation: New Directions for
    Evaluation”, Number 126, United Kingdom: Wiley
  3. Dwivedi 0., “India’s Environmental Policies, Programmes and 2016
    Stewardship”. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan UK
  4. Huggel C. and Singh R., “Climate Change, Extreme Events and Disaster Risk 2017
    Reduction: Towards Sustainable Development Goals”, Germany: Springer
    International Publishing
  5. “Environmental Modelling with GIS and Remote Sensing”, United 2017
    Kingdom: Taylor & Francis
  6. Esmail M., and Abdalla R., “WebGIS for Disaster Management and Emergency 2018
    Response”, Germany: Springer International Publishing
  7. “Emergency and Disaster Management: Concepts. Methodologies, Tools, and 2018
    Applications”, United States: IGI Global .

Hydrologic Safety Evaluation of Dams

1 Design Flood Analysis: Design flood estimation by Hydro-meteorological 8
approach: Concept of Unit hydrograph, design storm, depth estimation from
PMP Atlas, clock hour correction, areal reduction factor, Storm transposition,
Location Adjustment Factor (LAF), Barrier Adjustment Factor (BAF),
Transposition Adjustment Factor (T AF), Moisture Maximization Factor (MMF),
loss rate, base flow, time distribution coefficient, HEC-HMS model
2 Design flood estimation by flood frequency approach: Statistical tests on
flood data, stationary and non-stationary flood frequency analysis, computation
of return period floods, Goodness of fit tests
3 Channel routing: Hydrological and hydraulic channel routing
4 Reservoir routing: Modified Pu\’s and other applicable methods .”J
5 Dam Breach Modelling: Parameters estimation methodologies, Breach outflow
routing (Upstream Flood Routing methodologies, Downstream Flood Routing
methodologies, two-d imensional depth averaged models, one-dimensional
models and coupled 2D-1 D models, Modelling Software available), Practical
workshop or hands-on exercises for three different levels of detail in dam breach
modelling (Tier I, II and III)
6 Reservoir Rule Curve: Consistency check of inflow data, computation of
percentile and dependable flow, derivation of rule curve, conservation rule –

Name of AuthorslBookslPublisher

I. “Statistical Distributions for Flood Frequency Analysis”, WMO 1989
operational hydrology report no. 33.

  1. “Design Flood Estimation Manual”, Central Water Commission, New Delhi 2000
  2. Haan C. T., “Statistical Methods in Hydrology”, Wiley Publication, 378 pages 2002
  3. Hosking, J.R.M. and Wall ice J .R. ” Regional Frequency Analysis- 2005
    An Approach Based on L-Moments”, Cambridge University Press.
  4. “Guide to hydrological practices”, World Meteorological Organ ization 2008
  5. Boes R. M. and Schleiss A. J., “Dams and Reservoirs Under Changing 2011
    Challenges”, Netherlands: CRC Press
  6. AghaKouchak A., Easterling D., Hsu K., Schubert S. and Sorooshian S. (Eds.), 2012
    “Extremes in a changing climate: detection, analysis and uncertainty (Vol.
    65)”, Springer Science & Business Media
  7. Beven, KJ. “Rainfall-Runoff Modelling: The Primer”, 2nd Edition, Wiley- 2012
  8. Zhang J., Zhang L. and Wang R., “Dam Breach Modelling and Risk Disposal: 2020
    Proceedings of the First International Conference on Embankment Dams
    (ICED 2020)”, Germany: Springer International Publishing
  9. Xu Y., Zhang L., Chang D. and Peng M., “Dam Failure Mechanisms and Risk 2016
    Assessment”, Singapore: Wiley
    II. ” Flood Evaluation and Dam Safety”, United States: CRC Press 2018

Sediment Management in Reservoirs

1 Introduction: Sediment Management; Magnitude of the Problem
2 Erosion and Sedimentation in Drainage Basins: Weathering and Erosion
Processes, sediment properties, modes of sediment transport, mathematical
models, Sediment Delivery Ratio, Rates of Erosion and Delivery, Human Impact
on Sediment Yield, Impact of Natural Events, Measurement of Sediment Load
3 Reservoir Sedimentation Process: Hydrological and Hydraulic Processes,
Erosion, Transport and Sedimentation, Sources and Processes, Morphological
Processes, Sediment Size, Entrainment, Suspension, Suspended Material Load,
Bed Material Load, Unit Weight of Deposits, Delta Formation
4 Reservoir sedimentation: Computation of sediment yield, trap efficiency,
distribution of sediment in reservoir, new zero elevation
5 Predictive Methods for Reservoir Sedimentation: Measurement and
Monitoring Techniques, Empirical and Analytical Methods, Physical Modelling,
Satellite, UAV and USV, Post-Processing and Analysis Tools for Topo-
Bathymetric Data, Computational Modelling
6 Mitigation of Reservoir Siltation: Erosion and Sedimentation Control, Sediment
Routing, Sediment Removal, Structural and Non-Structural Adaptive Measures, Watershed Management, Check Dams, Sediment Bypassing, Sediment Flushing,
Sediment Sluicing, Density Current venting, Sediment Dredging
7 Reservoir Sedimentation in India: National Records and Regulation of Dams in
India, Indian Standard Code, Guidelines and Compendium on Reservoir
Sedimentation, Reservoir Sediment Management in India, Sedimentation Data
and Observation In Selected Reservoirs, Sediment Management In Indian
Reservoirs: Good Practices and Problems, published Indian case studies from
8 Reservoir sedimentation- International Practices

Name of AuthorslBookslPublisher

I. Annandale G.W., “Reservoir sedimentation”, Elsevier, New York 1987

  1. Morris G. L. and Fan J., “Reservoir sedimentation handbook: design and
    management of dams, reservoirs, and watersheds for sustainable use”, McGraw 1998
    Hill Professional
  2. Garde R.J. and Raju K., “Mechanics of Sediment Transportation and Alluvial
    2006 Streams Problems”, Taylor & Francis
  3. “Reservoir Sediment Management Hardcover” -Illustrated, CRC Press, 1 st
    2011 edition
  4. Tigrek S. and Aras T., “Reservoir sediment management”, CRC Press, Taylor
    2012 & Francis Group, Boca Raton
  5. Bhattacharyya K. and Singh V. P., “Reservoir Sedimentation: Assessment and
    2019 Environmental Controls”, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton
  6. “Handbook for Assessing DoWR, MoJ, Gol and Managing Reservoir Sedimentation”, DRIP,

Dam Safety Surveillance Instrumentation and Monitoring

I Dam Safef)’ Inspection Program: Types, prepanng for an Inspection,
Inspecting Embankment Dams, Concrete and Masonry Dams, Spillways,
Outlets and Mechanical Equipment, Inspecting General Areas, Visual
Inspection using remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), Use of Remotely
Operated Underwater Vehicles (ROVs), Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
2 Documenting an Inspection: Method, Checklist, Field Sketches, Photographs,
Monitoring Data, Global Positioning Sensors (GPS), Inspection Notes, Visual
Inspection Documentation, Writing an Inspection Report, Comprehensive
Inspection Report.
Comprehensive Dam Safety Review: Procedures, Details to be provided to
DSRP before inspection, Composition of DSRP, Reports of Comprehensive
Safety Evaluation, Roles and the Responsibilities of Dam Safety Review Panel,
Empanelment of Members of DSRP
Instrumentation and Monitoring: Monitoring Frequency, Measurement of
Seepage and Leakage, Movement, Types of Movement, Reservoir / Tail water
Elevations, Staff Gauge, Precipitation, Local Seismic Activity, Stress and
Strain, Types of Pressure (Stress) Measuring Devices, Temperature, Critical
Physical Data to be monitored, Data Evaluation.
Instrumentation System Planning: Embankment Dams: Instrumenting
Existing Embankment Dams, Monitoring Seepage and Water Pressure,
Monitoring Soil Stresses, Indian Standards Instrumentation System Planning,
Instrumentation System Planning: Seismic Monitoring, Instrumentation of Existing Dam

Hydro-Meteorological Instrumentation: Measurement, Recording,
Installation, Data validation, Errors in measurement of rainfall, temperature,
relative humidity, wind speed, evaporation, snowfall, water level, suspended
load etc.
Instrumentation Data Collection and Management: Introduction, Data
Collection, Manual Data Collection, Stand Alone Data loggers, Real time
Monitoring Networks, Advantages and Disadvantages, Data Management and
Presentation, Database software, Data Processing, Data Maintenance, Data
Presentation, Critical Data Analysis.
Monitoring Data Organization and Analysis: Introduction, Design Aspects,
Numerical Modelling, Back Analysis for Cal ibration, Dynamic Loading,
Dynamic Analysis, Monitoring Data Analysis, The Purposes of Monitoring Data
Analysis, Automatic Data Acquisition, Evaluation of Measurement Data, Data
analysis and Evaluation Summary
8 Automation of Instrumentation: Power for remote equipment, Vandalism, ..,
Lightning protection, Notification protocols, Data Acquisition and Management

Name of AuthorslBookslPublisher

I. Bartholomew C. L. and Murray B. c., “Embankment dam instrumentation 1987
manual”, US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation

  1. Dunnicliff J., “Geotechn ical instrumentation for monitoring field 1993
    performance”, John Wiley & Sons
  2. Penman A.D.M., Saxena K.R. and Varma V.M., “Instrumentation, Monitoring 1999
    and Surveillance: Embankment, Dams”, Hardcover, Routledge
  3. “Guidelines for instrumentation and measurements for monitoring dam 2000
    performance” , ASCE Task Committee on Instrumentation and Dam
  4. Roth J. J. and Hughes W., “Dam Maintenance and Rehabilitation II”. CRC 2010
  5. “Guidelines for instrumentation of large dams” Gol, CWC, Central Dam 2018
    Safety Organization, New Delhi
  6. “Guidelines for preparing operation and maintenance manual for dams”, CWe. 2018
    DoWR, MoJ, Gol, New Delhi C’
  1. “Guidelines for safety inspections of dams”, CWC, DoWR, Mol, GoI, New 2018
  2. Penman A. D., “Instrumentation, monitoring and surveillance: embankment 2018
    dams”, Routledge
  3. “Monitoring Dam Performance: Instrumentation and Measurements”, United 2018
    States: American Society of Civil Engineers
    II. Technical Specifications of Hydro-meteorological, Geodetic, 2018

Seepage through Dams

I Importance of seepage in dam safely and rehabilitation, Types and causes of seepage
through various types of Dams
2 Fundamentals of seepage through porous media, Darcy’s law, seepage velocity,
Dupuits theory, Seepage charts, Phreatic lines, Flow nets, Determination of free
surface and seepage discharge through dams for isotropic and anisotropic media.
Flow net for earth dam under steady/transient seepage condition, the stability of
., j Seepage Analysis, Boundary conditions, numerical techniques and modelling tools,
Phreatic line with and without filter, stability conditions
4 Seepage through main body of various types of dams; Measurement of seepage
water in galleries, Various methods of seepage control, Selection of core materials,
Drainage of embankments, Design criteria of filters, Use of geo-textiles, Seepage
Control through Embankments, Foundations
5 Seepage through bottom of reservoir area; various types of geological formations in
the bed: identification techniques to know the seepage from the beds, Dam Grouting.
Design and installation of grout curtains
6 Seepage detection, control and monitoring, Plan and design of various dams and
adopt suitable measures for its safety
7 Practical examples and site visits

Name of AuthorslBookslPublisher

I. Sherard J. L., “Earth and Earth-rock Dams: Engineering Problems of 1967
Design and Construction”, United States: John Wiley & Sons

  1. Mahgerefteh K., “Seepage and Stability Analysis of Earth 1979
    Dams”, (n.p.): Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
  2. “Seepage Analysis and Control for Dams: Engineering and Design”, 1986
    Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Office of the Chief of
  3. Cedergren H. R., “Seepage, Drainage, and Flow Nets” (Vol. 16). John 1997
    Wiley & Sons
  4. Bedmar A. P. and Araguas L., “Detection and prevention of leaks 2002
    from dams”, Netherlands: Taylor & Francis
    Pezhman T.G., Junaidah A., Amirhoss M., “Seepage Modelling of
    the Dam” Paperback – Import, 28, Scholars Press; Illustrated edition
  5. “Internal Erosion of Dams and Their Foundations: Selected and 2007
    Reviewed Papers from the Workshop on Internal Erosion and Piping
    of Dams and Their Foundations”, Aussois, France,
    Netherlands: Taylor & Francis
  6. Garg S. K., “Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures” 2011
    Twenty-fourth Revised Edition.
  7. Jansen R. B., “Advanced dam engineering for design, construction, 2012
    and rehabilitation”, Springer Science & Business Media
  8. Guyer, J.P. “An Introduction to Seepage Mitigation in Embankment 2020

Assessment and Management of Environmental issues in

1 Water quality issues: Impact of reservoir on water flow; Impacts on thermal
regime; Water chemistry; Sedimentation; Nutrient enrichment; Water pollution;
Emission of greenhouse gases; Climate change; Hydrological and water quality
impacts; Soil and landscape changes; Agro-economic issues; Human health
2 Ecosystem resilience issues: Concept of an Ecosystem; importance of
biological diversity; Destruction In ecosystem; Impacts on organisms and
biodiversity; Influence in primary production; Effects on aquatic ecosystems;
Value of ecosystem goods and services; Social and cultural impacts
3 Assessment of carbon footprints in dams 2
4 Guidelines and Standard Codes: Introduction; National and international
legislative frameworks, codes; Future challenges.
5 EIA methods and Tools: Introduction; basic principles of ElA for reservoir;
Development of scope; Mandate and study design; Base line survey;
Methodology for EIA; Economic approaches; Environmental Impact Statement
(EIS) preparation; temporal and spatial scales; socio-environmental factors;
Planning and reservoir management; case studies.
6 Environmental Clearances: Introduction; Requirement for environmental
clearances; Procedure for environmental clearances; Analysis of alternatives
7 Legal Issues: Introduction; Policy, legal and regulatory compliance; Statutory

Name of AuthorslBooksfPublisher

  1. Govardhan V., “Environmental Impact Assessment of Tehri 1993
    Dam, India”, Ashish Publishing House
  2. Canter L.W., “Environmental Impact Assessment”. McGraw Hill International 1995
    Edition, New York
  3. Petts J., “Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment”, VoL, I and II, 1999
    Blackwell Science London
  4. Barathwal R. R., “Environmental Impact Assessment”, New Age International 2002
    Publishers, New Delhi
  5. Lawrence D. P., “Environmental Impact Assessment – Practical solutions to 2003
    recurrent problems”, Wiley-Inter Science, New Jersey
  6. Berga L., Buil J. M., Bofill E., De Cea J. c., Perez J. G., Mafiueco G., and 2006
    YagUe J., “Dams and Reservoirs, Societies and Environment in the 21 st
    Century”, Two Volume Set: Proceedings of the International Symposium on
    Dams in the Societies of the 21 st Century, 22nd International Congress on
    Large Dams (ICOLD), Barcelona, Spain, CRC Press
  7. “Issues in Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning: 2012” Edition United 2013
    States: Scholarly Editions
  8. “Evolution of Dam Policies: Evidence from the Big Hydropower States”, 2014
    Germany: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  9. Devic G., “Environmental Impacts of Reservoirs”, In: Armon R., Hanninen O. 2015
    (eds), Environmental Indicators, Springer, Dordrecht. I007/978-94-017-9499-2_33
  10. Annandale G. W., Morris G. L. and Karki P., “Extending the life of reservoirs: 2016
    sustainable sediment management for dams and run-of-river hydropower. The
    World Bank. 8-8
  11. Shah A. and Mareddy A. R., “Environmental Impact Assessment: Theory and 2017
    Practice”, India: Elsevier Science
  12. “Water Conflicts in Northeast India”, Taylor & Francis 2017
  13. Khagram S., “Dams and Development: Transnational Struggles for Water and 2018
    Power”, United States: Cornell University Press

Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering

I Introduction: Earthquakes, characteristics and distribution, tectonic features of
the earth, geo-tectonic divisions of the Indian continent, geologic hazards
perception. Background and lessons learnt from damages in past earthquakes.
2 Earthquakes in Different Geological Set-Ups: Geological structures and ~”
deformation pattern, inter and intra – continent set up, convergent zones,
divergent margins, trenches, thrusts and faults. Earthquake implication of
structural discontinuities, the impact of the neo-tectonic activity.
3 Mapping: Coordinate and coordinate systems; geographical and map projection
system, 20 and 3D data transformation, types of maps, scales, map sheet
numbering systems and uses, types of maps, introduction to topographical and
geological maps, thematical maps, geological sections, data processing, analysis
and presentation techniques.
4 Wave Propagation: Waves in semi-infinite media – one-, two- and three-
dimensional wave propagation; Attenuation of stress waves – material and
radiation damping: Dispersion. waves in a layered medium.
S Dynamic Soil Properties: Stress & strain conditions, the concept of stress path;
Measurement of seismic response of soil at low and high strain, using laboratory
tests; Cyclic triaxial, cyclic direct simple shear, resonant column, shaking table, centrifuge and using field tests – standard penetration test, plate load test, block
vibration test, SASW/MASW tests, cross borehole; Evaluation of damping and
elastic coefficients; Stress-strain behaviour of cyclically loaded soils; Effect of
strain level on the dynamic soil properties; Equivalent linear and cyclic
nonlinear models; Static and dynamic characteristics of soils.
6 Ground Response Analysis: Introduction-, one-, two- and three-dimensional
analyses; Equivalent and nonlinear finite element approaches; Introduction to
soil-structure interaction.
7 Liquefaction: Introduction, pore pressure, liquefaction related phenomena –
flow liquefaction and cyclic mobility: Factors affecting liquefaction,
liquefaction of cohesion less soils and sensitive clays, liquefaction susceptibility;
State Criteria -CVR line, SSL, FLS;
Evaluation of liquefaction potential: characterization of earthquake loading
and liquefaction resistance, cyclic stress ratio, Seed and Idriss method; Effects
of liquefaction.
8 Earth Pressure: Active and passive earth pressures; Terzaghi’s passive wedge
theory, numerical methods, earth pressure measurements.; Seismic design of
retaining walls: types, modes of failures, static pressure, seismic response
(including M-O Method), seismic displacement, design considerations.
9 Seismic Slope Stability: Types of earthquake-induced landslides; Evaluation of
slope stability – stability analysis with dynamic loading, friction circle method,
effective and total stress methods of analysis, factor of safety, yield acceleration,
damage potential, displacement analysis, effect of saturated and submerged
conditions, FEM analysis of slope stability.
10 Remote Sensing in Earthquake Geology: Basic concepts of satellite imaging
of ground, types of satellite data in identifying the tectonic features, recognising
characteristics of earthquake deformation features, SAR interferometry for
earthquake deformation studies; Application of GPS for mapping;

s. Year of
Name of AuthorslBookslPublisher
No. Publication

  1. Prakash S., “Soil Dynamics”, McGraw Hill Book Company 1981
  2. Mather P.M., “Computer Processing of Remotely Sensed Images”, John 1999
  3. Demers Michael N., “Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems”, 2000
    John Willey
  4. Gibson P.J. and Power C.H., “Introductory Remote Sensing – Digital Image 2000
    Processing and applications”, Routledge
  5. Kameshwara Rao, N.S.V, “Dynamic Soil Tests & Applications”, Wheeler 2000
  6. Ranjan G. and Rao A.S.R., “Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics”, New Age 2000
    Int. Ltd
  7. Day Robert W., “Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Handbook”, 2001
  8. Hoffmann-WellenhoffB., “GPS Theory & Practice”, Springer 2001
  9. Kramer S.L., “Geotechnical-Earthquake Engineering”, Pearson Education – 2004
    Indian Low-Price Edition
  10. Chandra A.M. and Ghosh S.K., “Remote Sensing and Geographical 2006
    Information System”, Narosa, Oxford: Alpha Science International
  11. Saran S., “Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundation”, Galgotia Publication, 2006
    New Delhi
  12. Das B. M. and Ramana G.V., ” Principles of soil dynamics”, Cengage 2011

Geospatial Technologies for Dam Monitoring

I Overview of Geospatial Technologies
2 Introduction to optical remote sensing and its applications to surface water
changes; Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing
Introduction to microwave (SAR) remote sensing; InSAR processing and its
3 application to dam monitoring and associated tools/software; Structural
Monitoring of Dam Structures using SAR
Introduction to UAV sensing; various components of UA V; autonomous
4 UAVs; UAV data collection and processing methods; Indian Regulatory
Systems for UA V sensing
Introduction to LiDAR; LiDAR data coUection methods; Application of
5 LiDAR technology to dam monitoring


  1. Burrough P.A. and McDonnel R.A., “Principles of Geographic Information
    2000 System”, Oxford University Press
  2. Joseph G., “Fundamentals of Remote Sensing”, India: Universities Press 2005
  3. Nayak S. and Ziatanova S., “Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies for
    Monitoring and Prediction of Disasters”, Germany: Springer Berlin 2008
  4. Richards J.A., “Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis”, Springer 2013
  5. Ferretti A., “Satellite InSAR Data – Reservoir Monitoring from Space”, Eage
    2014 Publications
  6. Thenkabail P.S., “Remote Sensed Data Characterization, Classification, and
    2016 Accuracies”, CRC Press
  7. Shaw R., “Land Use Management in Disaster Risk Reduction: Practice and
    2016 Cases from a Global Perspective”, Japan: Springer Japan
  8. Dong P and Chen Q., “LiDAR Remote Sensing Applications”, CRC Press 2018
  9. Shimada M., “Imaging from Spaceborne and Airborne SARs, Calibration,
    2018 and Applications”, Taylor and Francis
  10. Garg P.K., “Introduction to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles”, New Age

Hydraulic and structural design of dams, spillways and energy dissipaters

1 Introduction to hydraulic structures and their necessity.
2 Embankment Dams: Types, design considerations, seepage analysis and
control, stability analysis, construction techniques
2 Gravity Dams: Forces acting on failure of a gravity dam, stress analysis,
elementary profile, design of gravity dam, other functional features of a gravity
3 Spillways: Types and their design, Ogee spillway, Chute and side spillway, Shaft
spillway, Labyrinth and Piano Key We irs, spillway gates, cavitation, aerators,
inflatable rubber weirs, stepped spillway, nappe and skimming flow
4 Energy dissipators: Necessity, Types and their selection, design of hydraulic
jump type stilling basins, Bucket and Flip type energy dissipators, Impact and
pipe outlet
5 Supercritical flow, oblique jump, supercritical transition
6 Hydraulic modelling of spillways and energy dissipators, dimensional analysis,
modelling of tu rbulence, friction , air entrainment etc., scale effects,

  1. Life time assessment of dam and associated works

Name of Authors / Books / Publishers Publication

  1. Peterka A. J., “Hydraulic design of stilling basins and energy dissipators”,
    1984 USBR Engineering Monographs No. 25
  2. “Design of Small Dams-Third Edition”, A Water Resources Technical,
    1987 Publication – US Bureau of Reclamation
  3. Hager W.H. and Vischer D.L., “Energy Dissipators: IAHR Hydraulic
    Structures Design Manuals”, CRC Press 1992
  4. Varshney R. S., “Engineering for Embankment Dams”, Netherlands: A.A.
    1995 Balkema Publishers.
  5. Varshney R. S., “Hydro Power Structures”, Nem Chand & Bros., Roorkee 2001
  6. Khatsuria R. M., “Hydraulics of spillways and energy dissipators”, CRC Press 2004
  7. Singh B. and Varshney R. S., “Embankment Dam and Engineering”, Nem
    2004 Chand & Bros, Roorkee
  8. Novak P. and Nalluri c., “Hydraulic Structures”, Edition 4, Taylor & Francis 2007
  9. Chanson H., “Energy Dissipation in Hydraulic Structures” Netherlands: CRC
    Press 2015
  10. Nalluri c., Narayanan R., Novak P. and Moffat A., “Hydraulic
    2017 Structures”, United States: CRC Press
  11. Guyer J. P., “An Introduction to Construction Control for Embankment
    2019 Dams”, Amazon Digital Services LLC – KDP Print US

Ground Improvement and Geosynthetics

Basics: Principles of ground improvement, Types/Classification of ground
improvement techniques. Mechanical modification, Types of compaction
techniques, Properties of compacted soil. Hydraulic modification, dewatering
systems, preloading and vertical drains, electro-kinetic dewatering, chemical
modification, modification by admixtures, stabilization using industrial wastes,
grouting, soil reinforcement principles,
Methods of stabilizations: – Mechanical – Admixture (Cement/Lime) –
Bituminous – Chemical. Types of admixture stabilisation- Grouting (permeation
grouting, compaction grouting, jet grouting), Deep Soil Mixing. Mass Soil
Stabilisation. Cutter Soil Mixing.
Grouting: – basic functions- permeation-compaction-hydro fracture,
classification of grouts- grout ability ratio- properties of grouts – viscosity,
stability, fluidity, rigidity, thixotropy, permanence Grouting applications: –
seepage control in soil and rock under dams- seepage control in soil for cut off
walls – stabilization grouting for underpinning.
Properties of admixture stabilised soils. Design of hydraulic cut-off walls, grout
Geosynthetics: Properties of geosynthetics and its testing, applications of
geosynthetics in bearing capacity improvement, slope stability, retaining walls,
embankments on soft soil, and pavements. filtration, drainage and seepage
control with geosynthetics, geosynthetics in landfills, soil nailing and other
applications of geosynthetics. improvement of· ground using geomembranes, geocells, geonets, geotubes
Reinforced earth: – Mechanism- types of reinforcing elements- reinforcement-
soil interaction -applications- reinforced soil structures with veltical faces.
Design of reinforced earth retaining walls, reinforced earth embankments
Advances III ground improvement technologies- thermal stabilisation,
biotechnical stabilization, hydroseeding etc.
Case Studies: Different case studies in India and around the world in the field
of Ground Improvement and Geosynthetics.

S. Year of
Name of AuthorslBookslPublisher
No. Publication
I. ” Reinforced Soil Engineering: Advances III Research and 2003
Practice”, Switzerland: Taylor & Francis

  1. Indraratna B., Chu J., Hudson H.A., “Ground Improvement- Case Histories”, 2005
  2. Saran S., “Reinforced Soil and Its Engineering Applications”, i.K. 2005
  3. Shukla S.K. and Yin J. H., ” Fundamentals of Geosynthetic Engineering”, 2006
    Taylor & Francis
  4. Rao G.V., “Geosynthetics – An Introduction”, Sai Master geo-environmentaI 2007
  5. Kitazume M., and Terashi M., “The Deep Mixing Method”, CRC Press 2012
  6. Koerner R.M., “Designing with Geosynthetics”, Sixth Edition. Xlibris 2012
  7. Kirsch K. and Bell A., “Ground Improvement”, Third Edition, CRC Press 2013
  8. Mittal S., “An Introduction to Ground Improvement Engineering”, Medtech 2013
  9. Denies N., and Huybrechts N., ” Handbook- Soil mix walls, Design and 2018
    Execution”. First Edition. CRC Press II “Ground Improvement Techniques and Geosynthetics: IGC 2016 Vol (2)”, 2018
  10. Germany: Springer Singapore,
  11. Huat B. B .• Anggraini V., Prasad A. and Kazemian S., “Ground Improvement 2019
    Techniques”, Netherlands: CRC Press

Sustainable Tourism around Dams

I Understanding the concepts of Sustainability, Sustainable Development,
Sustainable tourism
2 Socio-cultural problems related to dams- Social problems of displaced people,
Strategies for integration of local people into mainstream tourism, Skill upgradation
as an essential mechanism for success of sustainable tourism
3 Understanding dam Tourism tool to enhance as a SOClo-economlC and
environmental aspects, Techno-Economics aspects of Dam sustainability, Tools
and methodology for determining economic sustainability of dams
4 Understanding feasibility report for Dam tourism, components of feasibility
5 Concept of Sustainable Tourism around dams, issues and challenges
6 Challenges and limitations of sustainable tourism around dams in India
7 Current state of tourism around dams in India
Best case studies of sustainable tourism around dams in India and world
8 Discussion and possible line of action for the dams in the purview of the
Implementing Agencies
9 Risk Associated with tourism around dams; awareness and management

Name of AuthorslBookslPublisher

I. Stevens J. E., “Hoover Dam: An American Adventure”, University of 1990
Oklahoma Press.

  1. “Guidelines for community-based ecotourism development”, WWF 2001
  2. Prasad K., “Water resources and Sustainable Development: challenges of 2003
    21 st century”, Shipra Publications
  3. Narasaiah M. L., “Water and sustainable tourism”, Discovery Publishing 2005
  4. Bansal S. P. and Gautam P., “Sustainable Tourism Development: A 2007
    Himalayan Experience”, India: Indus Publishing Company
  5. Schleiss A. J. and Boes R. M. (Eds.), “Dams and reservoirs under changing 2011
    challenges”, CRC press
  6. Bass S. and Dalal-Clayton B., “Sustainable development strategies: a 2012
    resource book”, Routledge
  7. Sharma N. and Flilgel W. A., “Applied geoinformatics for sustainable 2015
    integrated land and water resources management (lLWRM) In the
    Brahmaputra River basin”, Springer India

Earth Retaining Structures and Dams

I Basic Concepti Design: Classification of Dam Types, Physical Factors
governing Selection of Type, General Arrangement, Area Capacity Curve,
Fixation of different hydraulic Levels and Capacities
2 Diversion Arrangement: Design of Coffer Dams, Design of Diversion
Tunnels, Design of Diversion Channels
3 Spillways: Types of Spillways (Ogee, Sluice, Side Channel, Chute channel,
Conduit and Tunnel, Morning Glory etc.), Hydraulics, Profiles and Spillway
Capacity, Types of Energy Dissipation Arrangement (EDA) (Stilling Basin,
Bucket type etc.), Design of EDAs
4 Foundation Design: Embankment: Treatment of foundation, Cut off trenches,
Toe Drains and Pressure relief wells etc., Concrete Dam: Consol idation
Grouting, Curtain Grouting etc., Other suitable foundation measures for other
type of dams and barrages
5 Stability Analysis: Forces/ Loads to be considered, Different load cases,
Factors of safety 111 different conditions, Allowable stress/ deformation
6 Design of other st.-uctures: Free board calculations and conditions for
different types of dams, Piers, Spillway bridges, Different Galleries, Stair Case/
Lift, Control Room, Retaining walls, Dam Toe Power House etc
7 Construction Methods and suitable treatments for Concrete Dams/ RCC Dams/
CFRD Dams/ Arch Dams, Earth/ Embankment Dams/ Rock fill Dams,

s. Year of
Name of AuthorslBookslPublisher
No. Publication

  1. “Treatise on Dams”, United States: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau 1950
    of Reclamation, [Commissioner’s Office]
  2. “Design of gravity dams: design manual for concrete gravity dams”, Bureau 1976
    of Reclamation United States
  3. Hoek E. and Brown E.T., “Underground Excavation III Rocks”, The 1980
    Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London
  4. Saran S., “Reinforced soil and its engllleenng appl ications”, IK 2005
    International Pvt Ltd
  5. Weaver K. D. and Bruce D. A., “Dam Foundation Grouting”, revised and 2007
    expanded edition, American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE Press, New
  6. Desai Y. M. and Shah A. H., “Finite Element Method with Applications in 2011
    Engineering”, India: Pearson Education India
  7. Saran S., “Analysis and design of foundations and retaining structures 2012
    sUbjected to seismic loads”, IK International Publish
  8. Clayton C. R., Woods R. I. and Milititsky J., “Earth pressure and earth- 2013
    retaining structures”. CRC press
  9. Zhang c., “Seismic Safety Evaluation of Concrete Dams: A Nonlinear 2014
    Behavioral Approach”, Netherlands: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
  10. Mohammad A. R., “Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Earthen 2015
    Dam”, Germany: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH KG

Seismic Safety of Embankment Dams

Introduction to Earth and Rock-fill Dams: Introduction to dams;
Characteristics of embankment dams; Differences between embankment dam and
other types of dams; Components of embankment dam, functions and suitable
materials; Zones of an embankment dam: Types of embankment dams:
Homogeneous, Zoned and Diaphragm type dams; Influence of inclined and
vertical core; Composite dams; Site selection for an embankment dam: Geology
and seismicity of dam site, Reservoir rim and basin, Construction materials,
Suitable spillway location, Submergence aspects, and Construction infrastructure;
Case Studies Related to Dam Failures: Performance of embankment dams in
past earthquakes; Causes of dam failure: Non-Earthquake conditions, and
Earthquake conditions; Different modes of dam failures; Inferences from various
case studies: Teton dam, Machchhu dam failure, Hebgen dam, Los Angeles dam,
San Fernando dam, and Sheffield Dam.
Stability Analysis of Dams: Effective and total stress methods of analysis;
Analysis by Fellinius, Spencer, Bishop, Spencer method, Morgenstern price
methods; Seismic slope stability methods: Inertial slope stability methods,
Pseudostatic analysis, Displacement analysis; Pseudo-static analysis by Frictioncircle,
Fellinius and Bishop’s methods; Factor of safety, yield accelerations and
damage potential under saturated and submerged conditions; Displacement
analysis by Newmark and Makdisi-Seed methods; Different loading cases for
dam stability analysis: End of the construction, Partial submergence, Sudden
drawdown, Steady state seepage, Sustained rainfall. and Earthquake; Slope
protection measures

FEM for Dam Analysis: Application of FEM, Dam-foundation interaction;
Identification of zones of hydraulic fractures and cracks; Nonlinear analysis,
Tangent stiffness, Secant stiffness methods and No-tension analysis; Inertial and
Weakening slope stability analysis; Modelling aspects: Element size, Domain
size, Boundary conditions. Computer applications: Software to compute static &
dynamic stresses induced, Deformations & displacements resulted, and Zones of
liquefaction within the dam; Dynamic analysis of dams with examples;
Seismic Performance Criteria for Large Embankment Dams: Background;
Integral dam safety concept; Seismic hazard a multi-hazard; Primary factors to
consider In seismic design: Regional factors, Local factors; Selection of
earthquakes for analysis; Seismic evaluation requirements; Seismic input
parameters for analysis; The conceptual and constructional criteria for seismic resistant
fill dams
Design Response Spectra – Generation of Time History: Introduction,
Standard code of practices; Synthesis of uncorrelated accelerograms:
Modification of recorded accelerograms in time-domain, Modulated sum of
harmon, Superposition of narrow-band time histories, Parametric time series
modelling, Modification of recorded time history in frequency domain, Ground
motion synthesis In frequency-domain; Spatially correlated accelerograms:
Modelling of spatial variation, Method of spectral factorization, Method of
principal components.
Reservoir Rim and Basin Stability: Causes and effects of rim stability, methods
for assessing rim and basin stability: Earthquake induced landslide activity,
Different types of earthquake induced landslides and their assessment methods.
Assessment of Seepage Pressures: Seepage in earth and rockfill dams and their
foundations, Different methods of seepage assessment; Standard analytical
solutions for seepage problems, Piping and Liquefaction; Estimation of pore
pressure by flow net and its construction: Confined flow and Unconfined flow;
FEM analysis for the estimation of seepage pressures.
Guidelines for the Seismic Design and Construction of Embankment Dams:
Different codal provisions: Core, Shell, Cut-off wall, Cut-off Barrier, Transition
Zones and Transition Filters; Internal drainage system; Protective layers for
erosion control; Free board; Parapet wall; Riprap;

No. Name of Authors / Books / Publishers Publication/

I. ” Embankment Stability Analysis, Preliminary Design: Proposed Indian Creek 1974
Dam, North Dakota”, United States: Soil Exploration Company

  1. “IS 7894, Code of practice for stability analysis of earth dams”, Bureau of 1975
    Indian Standard (BIS), New Delhi, India (Reaffirmed
  2. Prakash S., “Soil Dynamics”, McGraw Hill Book Company 1981
  3. Zienkiewicz O. C. and Morgan K., “Finite Elements and Approximation”, 1983
    John Wiley & Sons
  4. Kramer S.L., “Geotechnical-Earthquake Engineering”, Pearson Education – 2004
    Indian Low-Price Edition
  5. Singh, B. and Varshney, R.S., “Embankment Dam Engineering”, Nem Chand 2004
    & Brothers.
  6. Akin J.E., “Finite Element Analysis with Error Estimators”, Elsevier 2005
  7. Bandyopadhyay J. N., “Design of Concrete Structures”, India: PHI Learning 2008
  8. “Earthquake-Induced Landslides: Proceedings of the International Symposium 2012
    on Earthquake-Induced Landslides, Kiryu, Japan, 2012″, Germany: Springer
    Berlin Heidelberg
  9. “Selecting Seismic Parameters for Large Dams, Guidelines. Bulletin 148 2014
    Committee on Seismic Aspects of Dam Design”, International Commission on
    Large Dams (ICOLD), Paris
    II. AI-Labban S. N., “Seepage and Stability Analysis of the Earth Dams Under 2018
    Drawdown Conditions by Using the Finite Element Method”, United
    States: University of Central Florida

Concepts of Planning and Design of Hydro-Mechanical Components in Dams

1 Introduction & Types of Gates: Brief history of development, Gates
components, main applications, types and classification.
2 Selection of Hydraulic Gates: Selection criteria of Hydraul ic gates,
3 Hydraulic Gates Design & Weight Estimation: Hydrostatic, load cases,
allowable stresses, design of skin plate, horizontal beams, embedment, gate
weight estimation
4 Hydro-dynamic Forces: Hydro-dynamic forces (down pull, uplift, cavitation
etc.), aeration, modeling, etc.
5 Gate Operating Systems: Gate operating forces, hoists (Hydraulic &
6 Materials, Fabrication, Erection, Testing& Commissioning etc.: Materials,
rubber seals, fabrication, transportation & erection materials, fabrication
transportation, erection, testing & commissioning.
7 Hydraulic Gates for Dam Safety: Operation & maintenance of hydraulic
Gates, rehabilitation, inspection, operation & maintenance, automation, etc.
Recent trends & developments in Hydraulic gates engineering.
8 Practical Examples/ Workshops

Name of AuthorslBookslPublisher
I. Singh B. and Varshney R. S., “Hydropower Structures”, Nem Chand & Bros., 1977

  1. “Safety of Existing Dams: Evaluation and Improvement”, United States: National 1983
    Academy Press
  2. Nigam P. S., “Handbook on Hydro Electric Engg”, Nem Chand & Bros., Roorkee 1985
  3. “Small Hydro Stations” (Publication No. 175), Central Board of Irrigation and 2008
    Power, New Delhi
  4. “Dam and Levee Safety and Community Resilience: A Vision for Future 2012
    Practice”, United States: National Academies Press
  5. “StandardsfManuallGuidelines for small Hydro Development”, lIT Roorkee 2013
  6. Erbisti P. c., “Design of Hydraulic Gates, 2nd Edition”, Netherlands: Taylor & 2014
  7. Chen S., “Hydraulic Structures”, Belgium: Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2015
  8. Ascila R. and Hartford D. N. D., “Operational Safety of Dams and Reservoirs: 2016
    Understanding the Reliability of Flow-control Systems”, United Kingdom: ICE
  9. “Guidelines for Preparing Operation and Maintenance Manual for Dams”, DRIP, 2018
    MoWR, New Delhi
  10. Sur S. K., “A Practical Guide to Construction of Hydropower Facilities”, United 2019

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