Masters in Coastal Engineering

BASICS OF OCEAN, COASTAL AND HARBOUR ENGINEERING

OBJECTIVE:
• To provide an overview of the analysis and design procedures used in thefield of ocean, coastal and harbour engineering.


UNIT I
Introduction to Oceanography – Ocean Circulation, Tides, Waves, Currents, Tsunami and Storm surges – origin, generation, propagation and characteristics; Different materials for marine applications – metals, concrete, geo-synthetic products and other materials for marine environment; Marine corrosion and control; Introduction to physical modeling of coastal and offshore and harbor engineering problems.
UNITII
Ocean circulation – Conservation equations and transport processes, momentum balances, geostrophy, large scale circulation, wind-driven circulation, abyssal ocean circulation, boundary currents, friction and Ekman layers; Waves – Origin and evolution, characteristics, classification, Tsunami, Tides – Origin, characteristics, tidal generation forces, equilibrium tide, tidal analysis and prediction
UNIT III
Different types of ocean structures and systems (fixed, floating, semi-submersibles, submersibles, pipelines, etc.,) for exploitation and production of oil and gas, minerals and energy. Brief outline of planning, design and construction.Towing, launching and Installation
UNIT IV
Beach, coast and shore; Beach features – beach cycles – beach profiles – beach stability – beach erosion and sedimentation; Engineering aspects in coastal oceanography; Coastal protection structures – natural and artificial – design of shore protection structures, seawalls, groins, breakwaters; Types and factors determining selection and stability of breakwaters; Sand bypassing and artificial beach nourishment – latest technologies in shore protection techniques; Environmental impacts of coastal developments.
UNIT V
Types of ports and harbors; harbour layout and terminal facilities – piers, break waters, wharves, jetties, quays; Spring fenders, dolphins and floating landing stage environmental issues in port planning and operations; Harbor oscillations, seiches; Inlets – siltation of inlets and harbors – remedial measures; Onshore and offshore sediment transport – transport rate – estimation methods; Dredging .


REFERENCES BOOKS:
Dean, R.G. and Dalrymple, R.A., Water wave mechanics for Engineers and Scientists, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,1994.
Ippen, A.T., Estuary and Coastline Hydrodynamics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1978.
Sorenson, R.M., Basic Coastal Engineering, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York, 1978.
Coastal Engineering Manual, Vol. I-VI, Coastal Engineering Research Centre, Department of the Army, US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington DC,2006.
Kamphuis, J.W., Introduction to Coastal Engineering and Management, 2000.

PORT AND HARBOUR STRUCTURES

OBJECTIVE:
• To provide students understanding of ports and harbour structures, design layout and area selection.
• To enable students apply these engineering principles in coastal, ocean and harbour engineering.


UNIT 1 – Ports and harbours as the interface between the water and land infrastructure- an infrastructure layer between two transport media- History of port growth- factors affecting growth of port- Classification of harbour-Planning, justification, volume and commerce of a port
UNIT II – Fundamentals of port structures design, design codes, guidelines and functional requirements. Structural, geotechnical, and materials considerations, for a variety of environmental conditions, including extreme wave and current environments, ice, and seismic loading- Dry infrastructures-Wet infrastructures –Support vessels- Meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic data required for port design- Determination of location- Economic viability. UNIT III – Different types of Breakwaters, jetties & quay walls and dolphins- Hydrodynamic loading on such structures and Structural Design aspects.Functional designing of the various components of ports and marine terminals, including steel, concrete, timber, and stone structures. Design procedures for breakwaters, bulkheads, wharves, dolphins, piers, fender and mooring systems and revetments.
UNIT IV – Size and shape of harbour and turning basin – Type, location and height of Breakwaters – Location and width of entrance to harbour – Depth of harbour and navigational channel – Number, location and type of docks or berths or jetties- Shore facilities for Marine terminals and fishing harbours.
UNIT V- Case studies of breakwater failures and other types of structures. Partial safety Factors.CodalRequirements.mooring, berthing and ship motion inside the port; model studies, physical and mathematical studies


REFERENCES BOOKS
Muir Wood, A.M., and Fleming.C.A.,“Coastal Hydraulics Sea and Inland Port Structures”, 1 st Edition, Hallstead Press, 2002.
Ozha&Ozha, “Dock and Harbour Engineering”, 1 st Edition, Charotar Books, Anand., 1990
R. L. Silvester, “Coastal Engineering Volume I & II, Elsevier Publishers, 2000.
Per Brunn, “Port Engineering”, 1 st Edition, Gulf Publishing Company, 2001
Muir Wood, A.M., and Fleming. C.A “Coastal Hydraulics Sea and Inland Port Structures” 1stEdition,Hallstead Press, 2002.
Hans Agershou “Planning and Design of Ports and Maritime Terminals”: 2ed,: Thomas Telford
A.D. Qinn and McGraw-Hill Design and construction of Ports and Marine Structures, PHRI (Port and Harbour Research Institute) Japan manual.

COASTAL PLANNING

OBJECTIVE:
• To provide students understanding of social, economical and environmental considerations of coastal planning.
• Understand key issues in coastal planning like population growth, demographic change, infrastructure demand and climate change


UNIT 1
Introduction – Language of coastal planning, defining coastal areas, unique characteristics of coastal areas; History of coastal planning; Coastal management issues – population growth, urbanisation, coastal use, resource exploitation; Fisheries, forestry, gas, mining; Infrastructure, transportation; Shore protection, defence; Impact of human use; Pollution – industrial waste, sewage;
UNIT II
Coastal management issues-population growth and urbanisation-coastal use-resource exploitation-fisheries-forestry-gas-mining-infrastructure-transportation-shore protection-defence-Impact of human use-pollution-industrial waste-sewage-administration and legal issues.
UNIT III
Introduction to Cost and Benefit Analysis (CBA); CBA versus investment appraisal; Concept of external costs and benefits; Characteristics of Coastal Adaptation Projects against Climate Change; Concept of Ecosystem and Ecosystem Services; Demand and supply analysis; Framework for measurement and valuation; Economic framework to estimate the value of ecosystem services; Assessing the exposed Infrastructure against extreme weather events: flooding and infrastructure; Scenarios construction; Discounting and Net Present Value; Aggregation and weighing, discounting, net present value NPV and time scale of benefits and costs.
UNIT IV
Background to ICM – Sustainability and Sustainable ICM – ICM and Social Nature – Competing Claims and Visions of the Coast – ICM and Interdisciplinary-Livelihoods along the Coast – Local Knowledge – Sustainable Livelihoods – Vulnerability and Resilience – Changing Livelihood Dynamics.Understanding Institutions – Property Rights and Coastal Management –
UNIT V
Competing Property Rights and Resource Claims – Statutory and Customary Law – Institutional Change and Coastal Management.Existing Policies Governing the Coast – Good Governance – Making Sense of Policies –Reconciling Conflicting Agendas – Future of ICM.review of project planning and environmental clearance, environmental management plan, monitoring, compliance, variations from projected impacts, etc for an existing port


REFERENCES BOOKS:
Kay, R and Alder, J. Coastal planning and management, Taylor and Francis, New York, 2005.
Schari, A. Environmental online communication, Sprimger, London 2010
.Reeve, D.,Chadwick,A and Fleming, C. Coastal Engineering, Process, Theory and Design practices, Taylor and Francis, New York, 1998.
Sorenson, R.M., Basic Coastal Engineering, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York, 1978.
Coastal Engineering Manual, Vol. I-VI, Coastal Engineering Research Centre, Department of the Army, US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington DC,2006.
Kamphuis, J.W., Introduction to Coastal Engineering and Management, 2000.

MARINE INSTRUMENTATION

Objective: To provide students with a sound understanding of the use of electronic instrumentation and to familiarise the students with sensors commonly used in coastal and habour engineering applications.


UNIT 1
Types of marine instrumentation; in-situ and remote sensing instruments; operating platforms-fixed, ship, platform and buoy based; output formats; telemetry, velocity, wave height, wave period, tidal height, tidal period and ocean depth etc
UNIT II
Types of tide gauges: principles, operation and applications. Wave radars, rain gauge, seabed observatories Types of buoys; principles, application and operations for measurement of wind, temperature, current, wave height and direction and other environmental sensors, Satellite telemetry systems
UNIT III
Surveying equipment: echo-sounder, multibeam sonar, sub-bottom profiler, side scan sonar, boomers, sparkers, magnetometers, positioning and tracking equipment
UNIT IV
Types of acoustic transducers: piezoelectric and magnetostrictive; sonar transducers for echosounder, acoustic sub-bottom profilers, tide gauges, wave height and period sensors, data buoys, test and calibration of marine instruments.
UNIT V
Automatic Weather Station – Floats – Acoustic Navigation. Min Max thermometer – Aneroid Barometer – Wind cock – Velocity meter – sunshine – Evaporation pan – Radar storm warningsystem – Humidity meter – Rain gauge – GPS


REFERENCES BOOKS:
Walt Boyce, “Instrumentation Reference Book” Butterworth Heinemann IIIrd edition, 2003
Srinvasan,D.(1989) Indegenous Instruments for Oceanographic measurements published by NIOT
WilliamJ.Emrey and Richard E. Thomson (2014) “Data Analysis methods in Physical Oceanography” Third ed., Elsevier.

ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

OBJECTIVE:
• To enable students understand advanced engineering mathematics application.


UNIT 1 – SPECIAL FUNCTIONS
Introduction to Some Special Functions: Gamma function, Beta function, Bessel function, Error function and complementary Error function, Heaviside’s function, pulse UNIT height
and duration function, Sinusoidal Pulse function, Saw tooth wave function, Triangular wave function, Halfwave rectified sinusoidal function, Full rectified sine wave, Square wave function.
UNIT II – FOURIER SERIES
Fourier Series and Fourier integral: Periodic function, Trigonometric series, Fourier series, Functions of any period, Even and odd functions, Half-range Expansion, Forced oscillations, Fourier integral
UNIT III – DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Ordinary Differential Equations and Applications: First order differential equations: basic concepts, Exact differential equations, Integrating factor, Linear differential equations, Bernoulli equations, Modeling , Orthogonal trajectories of curves.Linear differential equations of second and higher order: Homogeneous linear differential equations of second order, Modeling: Free Oscillations, Euler – Cauchy Equations, Non homogeneous equations, Solution by undetermined coefficients, Solution by variation of parameters. Series Solution of Differential Equations: Power series method, Theory of power series methods, Frobenius method.
UNIT IV- TRNASFORMATION TECHNIQUES
Laplace Transforms and Applications: Definition of the Laplace transform, Inverse Laplace transform, Linearity, Shifting theorem, Transforms of derivatives and integrals Differential equations, UNIT step function Second shifting theorem, Dirac’s delta function, Differentiation and integration of transforms, Convolution and integral equations, Partial fraction differential
equations, Systems of differential equations
UNIT V- PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Partial Differential Equations and Applications: Formation PDEs, Solution of Partial Differential equations, Nonlinear PDEs first order, Some standard forms of nonlinear
PDE, Linear PDEs with constant coefficients, Equations reducible to Homogeneous linear form, Classification of second order linear PDEs. Separation of variables use of Fourier series, D’Alembert’s solution of the wave equation, Heat equation: Solution by Fourier series
and Fourier integral


REFERENCES BOOKS
Advanced Engineering Mathematics (8th Edition), by E. Kreyszig, Wiley
Engineering Mathematics Vol 2, by Baburam, Pearson
W. E. Boyce and R. DiPrima, Elementary Differential Equations (10th Edition), John Wiley (2017)
R. V. Churchill and J. W. Brown, Fourier series and boundary value problems (8th Edition), McGraw-Hill (2015).

WAVE HYDRODYNAMICS

OBJECTIVE:
• To provide an overview of the wave hydrodynamics.
• To enable students apply these engineering principles in coastal, ocean and harbour engineering.


UNIT 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF WAVE THEORY
Conservation of mass, moment and energy; Euler and Bernoullis equations; Potential and stream functions; Classification of ocean waves; Linear wave theory – governing equation, boundary conditions and solutions, dispersion relation, constancy of wave period; Wave kinematics – wave celerity, water particle velocities, accelerations, displacements and pressures; Approximations for deep and shallow water conditions.
UNIT II HIGHER-ORDER WAVE THOERIES
Various perturbation schemes for solving water wave problems; Stokes’ wave; Derivation of second order governing equations and outline of their solution; Mass transport and momentum principle (radiation stresses); Limitations of the Stokes’ solution; Cnoidal and solitary waves; Wave breaking criteria.
UNIT III WAVE DEFORMATION
Wave transformations – shoaling, bottom friction and damping, refraction, reflection and diffraction; Wave breaking – types of breaking; Surf similarity parameter; Keulegan-Carpenter number, Ursell parameter, scattering parameter, Reynolds number.
UNIT IV WAVE FORCES
Wave loads – non-breaking wave forces on slender structures; Morison equation; Diffraction theory; Source distribution method.
UNIT V RANDOM WAVES
Spectral representation of ocean waves – determination of wave spectra, Wave spectra from measurements; Semi-empirical formulations of wave spectra; Statistics of wave heights;Representation in the time domain; Long-term wave statistics; wave energy spectra – PM, JONSWAP, ETC.


REFERENCES:
Ippen, A.T., Estuary and Coastline Hydrodynamics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, inc., New York, 1978 Dean, R.G. and Dalrymple, R.A., Water wave mechanics for Engineers and Scientists, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1994 Sarpkaya, T. and Isaacson, M., Mechanics of Wave Forces on Offshore Structures, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 1981
Weigel, R.L.Oceanographical Engineering, Prentice Hall Inc, 1982. Sorenson, R.M., Basic Coastal Engineering, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York, 1978.
Coastal Engineering Manual, Vol. I-VI, Coastal Engineering Research Centre,
Department of the Army, US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington DC,2006
Bray R N, Bates A D,and Land J M. Dredging – A hand book for Engineers, Arnold London. 1997.
Copper Practical Dredging.
Cormick, Vol. I & II, Dock and Harbour Engineering.

PORT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

Objective:To provide a detailed analyses on planning and operating conditions for port. It introduce the students to the principles and practices of port operations and also provides with a comprehensive knowledge of the nature of port, its development and imanagement. It also introduces students to the roles and functions of ports in the economic and transport infrastructure of a territory.


UNIT I
Seaport layout with regards to (1) wave action (2) siltation (3) navigability, berthing facilities. Design of Port Infrastructures: Design of port infrastructures with regards to (1) cargo handling (2) cargo storage (3) integrated transport of goods, planning multipurpose port terminals.
UNIT II
Allowable wave conditions for cargo handling, wave conditions for human safety on quays and breakwaters, forecasting / hind casting of wave and current conditions for port operations, navigability, hazard scenarios; VTMS and management of computerized container terminal, safety & environment (handling of fire, oil spill, rescue, etc.).
UNIT III
Maintenance of waterways, construction of environmentally engineered banks, dredging and disposal processing and storing of polluted dredged materials, development of river information services.
UNIT IV
Planning, construction, expansion and renovation of port and Inland Port Infrastructure. Global trade and port restructuring/reforms, impact of possible climate change scenarios, sustainable development strategies for cities and ports.
UNIT V
Safety regulations and procedure, Formal safety assessments inports,HAZAMT and the handling of dangerous goods, Accident reporting and investigation,Occupational safety and health


REFERENCES BOOKS:
Muir Wood, A.M., and Fleming.C.A.,“Coastal Hydraulics Sea and Inland Port Structures”, 1 st Edition, Hallstead Press, 2002.
Ozha&Ozha, “Dock and Harbour Engineering”, 1 st Edition, Charotar Books, Anand., 1990.
S.Seetharaman, “Construction Engineering and Management”, 4 thEdition ,Umesh publications, New Delhi, 1999.
Richand L. Silister, “Coastal Engineering Volume I & II, Elsevier Publishers, 2000. 3. PeraBrunn, “Port Engineering”, 1 st Edition, Gulf Publishing Company, 2001 39 GVPCE(A) M.Tech. Infrastructure Engineering and Management 2014

REMOTE SENSING & GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Objective:To introduce the students to the basic concepts and principles of various components of remote sensing; To provide an exposure to GIS and its practical applications in coastal engineering.


UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO GIS
Introduction to GIS; Basics of ArcGIS; Geographic Coordinates Systems; Data creation (including georeferencing images and on screen digitization), metadata; Addition of attributes; Geometrical calculations (e.g. calculation of area, perimeters);
UNIT II SPATIAL AND SURFACE ANALYSIS
Spatial analysis; Surface analysis (including interpolation, slope, etc); Identification of sea level prone areas by using Digital Elevation Model; Cartographic principles for making maps; Open source GIS softwares; Basic Remote Sensing.
UNIT III REMOTE SENSING
Remote sensing: Introduction, principles of remote sensing, EMR interaction with atmosphere and earth material – platforms – Airborne, space borne – satellites Ocean sat. Optical sensors and thermal sensors – Thermal detectors, thermal radiometer – thermal infrared Satellites – types and sensors…. scanner.
UNIT IV DATA HANDLING
Microwave sensors – Active and passive sensors – RADAR, LIDAR Data transmission and storage: Information system, transmission path loss – encoding and decoding – storage and retrieval, thematic mapper.
UNIT V DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Data management systems: DBMS, Knowledge based system – geographic data bases


REFERENCES BOOKS

Lilesand T.M. and Kiefer R.W., Re,ote Sensing and Image Interpretation, John Wiley and Sons Inc New York, 1999
James B Campbell, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Taylor and Francis, London 2011
Pradip Kumar Guha, Remote sensing for the beginners, East West Pres Pvt. Ltd., 2003
Franks S. Marzanic, Remote Sensing of atmosphere and ocean fro space: Models, Instruments and Techniques, Kulwer Academic Pub. 2002

COASTAL ENGINEERING AND DESIGN

Objective:To provide the students the knowledge of wave transformation, sediment transport, coastal protection methods and coastal structure design.


UNIT I
Waves in shallow waters – Shoaling, refraction, diffraction and breaking– Interaction currents and waves- near shore currents-wave run-up and overtopping
UNIT II Coastal sediment characteristics- Initiation of sediment motion under waves- Radiation stress-wave set-up and wave set- down- mechanics of coastal sediment transport –Limits for littoral drift – Suspended and Bed Load – alongshore sediment transport rate – Distribution of alongshore currents and Sediment transport rates in Surf zone UNIT III Physical modeling in Coastal Engineering – Onshore offshore sediment transport – Stability of tidal inlets- Coastal features – Beach Features – Beach cycles– Beach Stability – Beach profiles -Coastal erosion, Planning and methods of coast protection works – Design of shore defense structures
UNIT IV
Non-breaking and breaking wave forces on coastal structures -Breakwaters- Classification, Design and application in coastal protection and harbor planning- Case studies on coastal erosion and protection-Generation, propagation and effect of tsunami.
UNIT V
Types of environmental loads- structural action of ocean structures- planning guidelines and design principles- regulations and codes of practice- foundation of ocean structures- sea bed anchors- dredging methods and equipments.


REFERENCES: BOOKS
Horikawa,K., Coastal Engineering, University of Tokyo press, 1978 Sorenson, R.M., Basic Coastal Engineering, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York, 1978 Kamphius,J.W. Introduction to coastal Engineering and Management, Advances on Ocean Engineering-Volume 16, World Scientific,2010 Reeve,D., Chadwick, A. and Fleming, C. Coastal Engineering-Processes, theory and design practice, Spon Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London & Paris,2018 Silvester,R. and Hsu,J.R.C. Coastal Stabilisation, Advances on Ocean Engineering-Volume 14, World Scientific, 1997. Coastal Engineering Manual, U.S.Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC 20314-1000, Vol. 1 to 3, July 2003

COASTAL HAZARDS AND MANAGEMENT

OBJECTIVE:
• To provide students understanding of the materials and processes associated with the major natural geo-hazards: floods, earthquakes, volcanic activity, landslides, and coastal hazards
• To be able to discuss the ability to predict and manage these hazards based on case studies to demonstrate the intensity and management options for all the natural hazards under consideration.


UNIT 1
Coastal Hazards; Causes of coastal hazards including geological, meteorological, oceanographic, and human- induced factors. Modes of occurrence of various coastal hazards like storm surges and erosion, locations and their origins and mitigation measures; Hurricanes, cyclones and typhoons; Most powerful storms on earth – different names; Storm surges and flooding in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and New Orleans.
UNIT II
Historical records of tsunamis; Tsunamis in a global context, implications for different continents; Natural versus man-made hazards; Cyclones, coastal erosion, tsunami, flood, storm surges, sea level rise and others; Impacts of these on natural and human environment; Susceptibility of the world’s coastal populations to tsunamis and solutions; Rip currents – characteristics and mitigation measures; Hydrodynamic characteristics of tsunamis and storm surges; Tsunami early warning systems; Construction of tsunami walls, levees etc. and mitigation effects.
UNIT III
Global sea level rise and responses; Global warming induced sea level rise; Disaster risk management in an age of climate change.Case studies of coastal disasters; Coastal management approaches for sea level related hazards; Causes of coast vulnerability to hazards; Cases in southeast Asia; Coastal hazard, vulnerabilities and resilience; Hazard prevention & control.
UNIT IV
Marine pollution, coastal salinities, water pollution, water quality; Classes of water pollutants, pollutant trace elements in water, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and other inorganic chemicals in water; Acidity, alkalinity, salinity, sewage and water pollution; Ground water rise, causes of rising ground water; Oil spills and coastal disasters – prevention, control and recovery methods; Case study of disasters such as the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
UNIT V
Cases of hazards in Indian coasts and applicable disaster management techniques; Vulnerability assessment in coastal disaster management – island risk management pertaining to cyclone, sea level rise and trends of coastal disaster management; Coastal early warning system; CommUNITy based disaster management system; Ethical dimensions and competing values; Growth management – tools, plans, principles; Mitigation – definition, approaches, types and examples; Coastal hazards management framework; Hazard mitigation planning

REFERENCE BOOKS:
Norbert P. Psuty and Douglas D. Ofiara.(2002). Coastal Hazard Management.Rutgers university press.421 p.
John Heinz H. (2000). The Hidden coasts of coastal hazards- Implication for Risk Assessment and mitigation. Island Press.209 p
Beatley, T., David, J.B. and Anna, K.S. An Introduction to Coastal Zone Management, Island Press, Washington D.C., 2002.
Bryant, E., Natural Hazards, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2006.
Burby, R.J., ed., Cooperating With Nature: Confronting Natural Hazards With Land-Use Planning for Sustainable CommUNITies, Joseph Henry Press,Washington D.C. 1998.
Godschalk, D.R., et al., , Natural Hazard Mitigation: Recasting DisasterPolicy and Planning, Island Press, Washington D.C,1999.
NC Division of Emergency Management, Hazard Mitigation Section, Risk Assessment and Planning Branch, Keeping Natural Hazards From Becoming Disasters: A Mitigation Planning Guidebook for Local Governments, 2003.

OCEAN STRUCTURES

Objective:To provide the students the knowledge of ocean resources, regulation and codes &different materials used for marine applications.


UNIT-I Brief introduction of ocean and its resources and uses– near shore structures. Different types of ocean structures and systems (fixed, floating, semi-submersibles, submersibles, pipelines, etc.,) for exploitation of oil and gas, minerals and energy of planning, design and construction.
UNIT-II Regulation and codes of practices – The environment and environmental forces – structural analysis – Foundation and seabed anchors – Towing, launching and installation. UNIT-III Different materials for marine applications: Metals, concrete and other materials for marine environment – Principles of corrosion, properties and selection of materials, welding of materials and metals for marine use. Non-destructive protection of materials UNIT IV Inspection and testing of marine structures- methods and equipments- non-destructive techniques.Repair and rehabilitation of marine structures.structural health monitoring of marine structures. UNIT V Introduction to stochastic dynamics of ocean structures- Stationary process- stochasticprocess- Random environmental processes-Response spectrum- Narrow band processreturn period- fatigue prediction-

REFERENCE: BOOKS

Ben C.Gerwick, Jr., Construction of Marine and Offshore Structures, CRC Press, New York Reddy, D.V.andArockiasamy, M., Editors, Offshore Structures, Vol.I and II, Krieger Publishing Company, Florida, 1991 PerBruun, Port Engineering, Volume I and II, Gulf Publishing Company, 1989

MARINE CORROSION AND PREVENTION

Objective: On completion of the course the students are expected to have the knowledge on the Causes of corrosion.• Method of prevention during operation and during construction• Anti-corrosive paints• Corrosion in boilers and IC engines


UNIT I INTRODUCTION
Cathodic Protection – Sacrificial anodes protection – Impressed current system protection – Bimetallic corrosion – Design faults causing corrosion – corrosion of metals in sea water, metallic corrosion.
UNIT II HULL PLATE PREPARATION
Plate preparation during building and repair periods -Atmospheric corrosion Mill scale – flame cleaning – Acid Pickling – Blast cleaning – causes of paint failure – shipboard preparations for painting – power wire brushing – power discing – air hammer – high pressure water blasting – sand blasting shot blasting.
UNIT III MODERN PAINT TYPES
Basic composition of paint Albyd – bitumen or pitch – chlorinated rubber – coal tar epoxy – Epoxy – oleo resinous – phenolic – polyurethane – primers – vinyl – self polishing copolymers – shipboard paint systems – underwater AF paints – boot top anti corrosive paints – super structure paints.
UNIT IV CORROSION IN BOILER
Atoms & Ions, Ph value electrochemical corrosion, Direct chemical attack – Electro chemical attack – reason – remedial measures. Effect of salts & Grease in feed water.Effect of corrosion while boiler not in service – preservation to avoid corrosion. CORROSION IN MARINE DIESEL ENGINES: Corrosive wear of cylinder liners – Reasons and remedies – corrosion of Main Engine Jacket cooling spaces – Reasons and remedies – corrosion in bearings.
UNIT V CORROSION AND ITS PREVENTION
Mechanism of corrosion – Chemical corrosion – Electro chemical corrosion – Anomic &cathodic protection – forms of metallic coatings – anodizing – phosphating.


REFERENCES BOOKS
Lavery, H.I.,”Shipboard operations” Institute of Marine Engineers Publication
Schweitzer, „ Fundamentals of Corrosion”,1st Ed. Taylor& Francis, Indian Reprint 2012 (Yesdee Publishing Pvt. Ltd.)
M.E.P., “Corrosion For Marine & Offshore Engineers ”, Marine Engineering Practice, Vol.02,Part 11, IMarEST, London
Francis Laurence LaQue , “ Marine corrosion: causes and prevention”, 1st Ed., Wiley, 1975
Claire Hellio, Diego M. Yebra, PinturasHempel S.A., “Advances in Marine Antifouling Coatings and Technologies”, Woodhead Publishing, 2009 REFERENCES: 1. Pierre R. Roberge, “Corrosion Engineering Principles and Practice”, 1st Ed.,McGraw-Hill, 2008 2. Zaki Ahmad, “Principles of Corrosion Engineering and Corrosion Control”,1st Ed. Elsevier.

COASTAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESCUE OPERATIONS

Objective: To make students aware of different surveillance, patrol, search and rescue operations carried out in coastal and ocean regions.


UNIT I
Terminology & Definition. Scouting, Search and Patrol, Method of Search and Patrol, Tracking and Reconnaissance, Terms used in Scouting: Track spacing, Sweep width, Coverage factor. Factors affecting and Planning of Scouting Mission.Aim, Initiation of Scouting operations, Consideration in search design, Security of search, Economy in use of scouts, Accuracy of Navigation, Effectiveness of search.Area of Search.Entry probable area, Calculation of drift factor.
UNIT II
Search and Patrol Types of Search: Rectangular search, expanding square search, intercepting search. Types of patrol: Fixed station patrol, Linear patrol, Cross over patrol. Principles of boarding operations, Conduct of anti-smuggling/poaching operations. Gradual use of force.
UNIT III
Marine environment – Pollution response and pollution control. Concept for marine environment; Pollution response action; Coast Guard role; Legislation – NOS-DCP; National & International legislation including merchant shipping Act 1958; Environment protection Act; Indian port Act; Fund convention; MARPOL 73/78 annex-I; IOPC fund; Filing of claims. Coast Guard Pollution equipment – Pollution Response equipment with Coast Guard; Usage and operation
UNIT IV
Search & Rescue – Objectives and benefits of SAR; Component of SAR.SAR Organization – Various international conventions; Role of Coast Guard for SAR; National SAR organization; National SAR plan; National SAR Communication system. SAR Operation
UNIT V
Various maritime and aeronautical Distress; False alerts and their prevention; Sea-Air coordinated search Techniques; Planning and operations; Rescue planning and Operations; Rescue planning and operations; Mission orders.


REFERENCES BOOKS
Ince, A.N., Topuz,E. Panayirci, E. and Isik,C. Principles of Integrated Maritime Surveillance Sustems. Springer 1998.
Survival at sea, pub: Australian maritime safety authority, March 1997
“Surveillance, Search and Rescue “, Conf. Proc. RINA, UK, 2003

MARINE SURVEYS AND MONITORING

Objective:To introduce the students to different aspects involved in a coastal survey and measurement systems, survey locations, survey parameters and standards, data acquisition, storage and processing.


UNIT I
Brief history – Importance – Fields of application of coastal surveying– Fundamental concepts – Survey Planning, Data collection, Data Processing, Data Analysis, Data Quality control, Data Products – Presentation
UNIT II
The Earth – The Ellipsoid – The Local Sphere – The Geoid Datum – Types of Datum – Horizontal Datum – Vertical Datum – Datum Transformation – Coordinate Systems – Principles of Cartography – Projections – Genemonic – Conic – Cylindrical and Universal Transverse Mercator projection – Positioning Methods – Horizontal Control Methods – Vertical Control Methods – Instruments used – Topographic surveying applied to hydrography – Coastline delineation and – Coastal and Harbor Surveys
UNIT III
Fundamentals of acoustic wave propagation in ocean waters – Sound velocity computation – Attenuation – Refraction and reflection – Frequency – Band width – Pulse length – Acoustic Instrument operation – Data recording and processing – Sidescan – Practical use of Sidescan – Plotting and measurements from Sonar records – Multibeam Echosounders – Feature detection and Sea floor classification
UNIT IV
Principles of Tides and Water Levels – Astronomical Tide Producing Forces – Tidal Characteristics – Non-tidal water level variations – Tide and water level Datum – Harmonic Analysis and Tide Prediction – Principles of Tidal Currents – Measurements and Prediction of Currents
UNIT V
Methods for the assessment of coastal and marine pollution – Biological productivity and pollution monitoring – Water quality parameters: physical/ chemical/ biological properties, sampling techniques and problems – Nutrients, sewage and anoxia – Impacts of heavy metals – Pathways of radioactivity – Data storage and processing – Water quality standards


REFERENCE BOOKS:
Ask, T., Handbook of Marine Surveying, Sheridan House, 2007.
Ghilani, C.D. and Wolf, P.R., Elementary Surveying: An Introduction to Geomatics, Prentice Hall, 2008.
Kennish, M.J., Practical Handbook of Marine Science, CRC Press, 2001.
Brekhovskikh, L.M. and Lysanov, Y.P., Fundamentals of Ocean Acoustics, Springer, 2003.
Dean, R.G. and Dalrymple, R.A., Coastal Processes with Engineering Applications. Cambridge

INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT

Objective:To understand the features and components of the natural, engineering and human aspects of the coast, the functions of components and relationship between them; To integrate the interpretation and analysis of the identified coastal issues to determine appropriate approaches to manage the humans and the coastal environment; To familiarize with the rules and regulations associated with coastal operations.


UNIT 1
Introduction to Coastal Zone – The need for ICM – Fundamental concepts – Interactions between coastal and ocean uses and conflicts – Definitions used in ICM – Glossary of terms in ICM.
UNIT II
Introduction – Pathway through the framework – Tools and techniques for ICM – ICM Processes – Stakeholder analysis – Environmental assessment – Problem tree analysis – Conflict resolution – Risk evaluation – Cost Benefit Analysis – Traditional management
UNIT III
Case studies (including field work) – Resource survey – Transect walks – learning through observation – Observing in practice – Participatory observation – Focus group discussions – Group ordering – Interpreting observations
UNIT IV
Social science insights – Natural science insights – Horizontal integration – Vertical integration – Problem and objective analysis – Monitoring and evaluating management
UNIT V
Law of the Sea [UNCLOS] – Ocean Governance – Coastal regulation zones including small islands – Environmental policies – Spatial planning – Administrative and legal situations,


REFERENCES BOOKS:
Cicin-Sain, B and Knecht, R.W., Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management: Concepts and Practices. Washington, DC, Island Press, 1998.
Clark, J.R. Coastal Zone Management Handbook, CRC Press Environmental Studies 1995.
Holder, S., Bearley, T., Brower, D.J. and. Schwab, A.K., An Introduction to Coastal Zone Management, 2nd edition.Island Press, Washington, DC, 2002.
Le Tissier, M.D.A., Ireland, M., Hills, J.M., McGregor, J.A., Ramesh, R. and Hazra, S. (eds).A Trainers’ Manual for Integrated Coastal Management Capacity Development. Integrated Coastal Zone Management andTraining (ICZOMAT) Project.The University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K. 2003.

MARINE POLLUTION PREVENTION & CONTROL

Objective:
On completion of the course the students are expected to have the knowledge on the Causes of corrosion. Method of prevention during operation and during construction.Anti-corrosive paints, Corrosion in BOILERS and IC ENGINES.


UNIT I
Marine Pollution: Definition by GESAMP, major sources of pollution, dynamics, transport paths and agents. Sewage and Toxicology: Lethal and sub lethal effects of pollutants on marine organisms, evaluation of toxicity tolerance, bioassaybio-concentration, bio-accumulation and bio-magnifications. Enzymatic removal of hazardous organic substances from aqueous effluents.Domestic, Industrial, agricultural and aquaculture discharges, their composition and fate in the marine environment, toxicity and treatment methods, sewage disposal system.
UNIT II
Oil pollution: Sources and fate of oil, composition and toxicity of oil, biological effects treatment procedures. Behavior of oil; Properties of oil’ Air surveillance’ Calculation of quantity, direction and speed of slick’ Weathering of oil; Spill Response and recovery; Oil spill contingency plan.
UNIT III
Thermal and radioactive pollutants: Source and characteristics, strategies for disposal of RNA and Heated effluents, biological effects and alternative uses of waste dumping, mining and dredging operations, their effects on the organisms and marine environment. Heavy Metal pollution- sources, distribution, fate- analytical approaches; Pesticide pollution classification, sources, distribution, fate and ecological impacts with special reference to marine fishes, birds and mammals.
UNIT IV
Environmental Management and Environmental Monitoring methods: Environment Management and auditing; Environmental monitoring methods for critical pollutants-objectives status limitations- biological indicators – natural bioaccumulations (mussel watch water quality assessment),
UNIT V
Toxicity and types of toxicity tests – Use of analytical instruments AAS, ICP, GLC, and Spectrofluorometer for analyzing Petroleum hydrocarbon, Pesticides, Heavy metals etc


REFERENCE BOOKS
Advaces in Water Pollution Research:B A Southgate,Pergamon,1st edn,1964.
Marine Environment Pollution: Richard A Geyer,Elssevier,1st edn,1981
Marine Outfall Systems:R A Grace,Prentice Hall,1st edn,1978
Ocean Dumping &Marine Pollution :M G Gross

MARINE NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Objective:
• To provide students with a sound understanding of the use of marine navigation.
• To familiarise the students with communication systems commonly encountered in marine engineering applications


UNIT I Navigation:
Introduction-Principles of Navigation, basic map and globe related terminology, tools employed by mariners, types of navigation, phases of navigation, navigation terms and conventions. The earth, distance and direction on the earth, coordinates, finding latitude and longitude ,the navigational triangle, the time sight, navigation organizations, governments role, types of organizations-The International Maritime Organization(IMO), The National Imagery and Mapping Agency, The Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM) etc.
UNIT III
Inputs of step, Ramp, Sinusoid, Pulse and Impulse, Exponential Function and their responses, Error Detector, Controller output elements.Torque Proportional to error. Electron tubes, transistors; principles of electronic circuits; amplifiers, oscillators, rectifier, tuned circuits – amplifiers, oscillators, transmission and reception.
UNIT IV
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope, digital voltmeters, ammeter, ohmmeters and frequency meters, Multi-meters, Vacuum Tube voltmeter and signal Generators. MICROPROCESSORS-8085 Architecture, Programming, interfacing and Control of motors, Temperature/Speed control – Basics and Control mechanism of PLC.Introduction to control terms, Block diagrams for control systems, open loop and closed feedback control, comparison of closed and open loop.
UNIT V
Communication as applicable to GMDSS (Global Maritime, Distress & Safety System), GPS(global positioning system), NAVSAT(navigational satellite), INMARSAT,LORAN-C, RADAR: direction finding, SONAR, Automatic Identification System (AIS),Search And Rescue Radar Transponder (SART), Echo Sounder, Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB).
UNIT V
Sonar Aids : Echo Sounder : Principle and working. Operational controls. Choice of site for echo sounder transducers. Errors causing display of faulty or unreliable sounding. Doppler Log : Description of the system. Errors and their remedies. Berthing aids : Brief description of systems using sound propagation and systems using radiowaves propagation.


REFERENCES BOOKS:

Electronic Communication, Robert L.Shrader, McGraw-Hill
Handbook for Marine Radio Communication, G.D.Less and W.G. Williamson, ISBN 1-85044-472.
Fundamentals of Digital Electronics and Microprocessors, Anokh Singh &A.K.Chhabra, S.Chand.
Marine Electronic equipments, C.D Joshy, CIFNET

COASTAL RESOURCES MANGEMENT

Objective:
• To provide students with a sound understanding of the use of coastal resources & their exploration.
• To familiarise the students with coastal management techniques in marine engineering applications


UNIT-I COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES
Types and functions of coastal and marine resources – Coastal zone as an integrated resource area – Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources
UNIT-IINON-LIVING MARINE RESOURCES
Renewable vs. Non-Renewable Resources – Marine minerals – Placer deposits hydrocarbon deposits – Polymetallic nodules – Exploration and exploitation of natural minerals – Methyl/ Gas Hydrates – Sea Salt – Potential energy in the ocean – Salinity – Wave – Tides – Currents – OTEC
UNIT-III LIVING MARINE RESOURCES
Environmental variability on marine fisheries resources – Interactions between fisheries and the ecosystem – Marine Protected Areas (MPA) – Large marine Ecosystems (LMEs) – Climate effects on living marine resources – Biological monitoring of marine ecosystems
UNIT-IVRESOURCE EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION
Marine geophysical methods – Sea floor resource exploitation – Exploitation of the oceans by human activities – overfishing – mining – ocean dumping – oil spills – coral reef bleaching – Marine archeology-optimal use of the land and water resources of coastal zone- ecological, cultural, historic, aesthetic values -CRZ-violation of CRZ-responsible fisheries in coastal zone.
UNIT-V COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Resources as common property – Defining resource management – Conflicting interests with other Marine Resources: Food and Recreation/Tourism – Management tools – Ecosystem health and protection of biological diversity – Ecotourism – Future uses of the oceans


REFERENCE BOOKS:
Beer, T., Environmental Oceanography: Second Edition (Marine Science Series), CRC Press, 1997.
Kennish, M.J., Pollution Impacts on Marine Biotic CommUNITies, CRC Press, New York, 1998.
Alongi, D.M., Coastal Ecosystem Processes, CRC Press, New York, 1998.
Eisma, D., Intertidal deposits, River Mouths, Tidal flats and Coastal Lagoons, CRC Press, New York, 1998

MINING AND DREDGING

Objective:To provide the students the knowledge of methods of mining and dredging in coastal and offshore regions

.
UNIT I
Introduction to mining, stages of mining, surface and underground mine development and mining methods. Design criteria for surface mines including scheduling, materials handling, waste dump and pit dewatering.
UNIT II
Aspects of geological conditions and geological control that relate to mineral resource estimates.Mineral resource estimation using conventional and geostatistical techniques.Mine valuation and preliminary feasibility studies.
UNIT III
Nature of deep sea bed resources – technical requirements of deep Ocean Mining – Deep sea mining systems – hydraulic and pneumatic life devices.
UNIT IV
Purpose and development of dredging, types of dredging, dredgers and their classification; Mechanical dredgers – Bucket dredger, Grab dredger, dipper dredger, rock breaker, back hoe dredger; Hydraulic dredgers: Plain suction dredger, cutter suction dredger, wheel dredger, trailer suction dredger; Pneumatic dredger,.
UNIT V
Special dredger equipments, underwater drilling and blasting. Improving the efficiency of surface blasting; Dredging methods – dredge pumps (centrifugal and Jet) – their characteristics and selection; Disposal of dredged materials- pipeline transport of solids – characteristics of solid – water slurry flor in pipelines.


REFERENCES BOOKS:
Howard, L.Hartman, Introductory Mining Engineering, Pub: John Willey & Sons
Bray R N, Bates A D,and Land J M. Dredging – A hand book for Engineers, Arnold London. 1997.
Copper Practical Dredging.
Cormick, Vol. I & II, Dock and Harbour Engineering.

OCEAN DYNAMICS AND MODELING

Objective:To provide the students the knowledge of various modeling concepts and methods .


UNIT I
Introduction – modeling issues – numerical computing – accuracy – rate of convergence – efficiency; computational environment – governing equations – approximations and representations- parameterization – boundary conditions -physical and numerical modeling.
UNIT II
Finite difference methods – advection equations -computation errors – Implicit and explicit finite difference schemes- leap-frog scheme, Euler’s scheme, Von Neumann method, Trapezoidal Implicit schemes – stability criteria- computational instability.
UNIT III
Concepts of ocean models – numerical modeling of ocean processes- Cox’s model of Indian Ocean – POM, ROMS models. Model validation – data assimilation and calibration of models – nowcast, forecast and prediction- forecasting ENSO.
UNIT IV
Physics of ocean modeling, Lagrangian and Eularian approaches in modeling, diagnosticmodels, prognostic models, model domain, model initialization and model forcing, subgrid scale parameters
UNIT V
Indian Ocean boundary conditions, model forcing conditions over Indian ocean, status of operation models in Indian Ocean.


REFERENCES BOOKS:
Numerical modeling of ocean circulation – Robert N. Miller – Cambridge University Press
Numerical methods for ocean circulation – Pond S. and Bryan – AGU Publications
Circulation models of lakes and inland seas – T.J. Simons – Ottawa : Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 1980.,RC Press

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of various numerical techniques and hydrodynamic computations with code development and mathematical formulations


UNIT I
Fundamentals of fluid Mechanics and dynamics-purpose and philosophy, governing equations of fluid dynamics-models of flow-continuity equation-momentum equation-energy equation, equations of viscous flow(navier-stokes equation). Mathematical behaviour of partial differential equation-hyperbolic equations-parabolic equations-elliptic equations. CFD techniques-Lax Wendroff-pressure correction-simple algorithm.
UNIT II
Basics of numerical methods-finite difference method- Finite difference methods; different means for formulating finite difference equation; Taylor series expansion, integration over element, local function method; treatment of boundary conditions; boundary layer treatment; variable property; interface and free surface treatment; accuracy of f.d. method
UNIT III
Finite Volume Technique: Finite volume methods; different types of finite volume grids; approximation of surface and volume integrals; interpolation methods; central, upwind and hybrid formulations and comparison for convection-diffusion problem. boundary element method-finite volume methods.
UNIT IV
Finite Element Methods: Finite element methods; Rayleigh-Ritz, Galerkin and Least square methods; interpolation functions; one and two dimensional elements; applications. Methods of Solution:Solution of finite difference equations; iterative methods; matrix inversion methods;ADI method; operator splitting; fast Fourier transform.
UNIT V
Discretization of partial differential equation, transformations and grids, simple numerical techniques, applications to ocean engineering. Introduction to parallel machines and high performance computing.


REFERENCE BOOKS:
Anderson D, Computational fluid Dynamics, McGraw Hill International Editions, 1995. Anderson, John David, and J. Wendt. Computational fluid dynamics. Vol. 206. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995. Anderson, Dale, John C. Tannehill, and Richard H. Pletcher. Computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer,2016., Taylor and Francis Pletcher, Richard H., John C. Tannehill, and Dale Anderson. Computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer, 2012., CRC Press

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.