Masters in Alternate Hydro Energy

Small Hydropower Planning & Management

Forms, development and purposes of water resources, types of hydro projects, SHP
development and its relevance, Electricity acts, constitutional provisions, development
process, allotment of sites, opportunities
Small hydropower planning on existing structures and new sites
Different methods for stream gauging, rainfall, runoff and its estimation by different
methods, peak flood estimation, demonstration of discharge measuring instruments
Flow duration studies, assessment of power potential and determination of installed
Topographical, geological and power evacuation surveys and investigations,
demonstration of surveying instruments, site selection for SHP projects
Different types of project reports and their relevance Different methods of project implementation
Financing of projects, cost estimation for different components, financial and economic
analysis, clean development mechanism, management of SHP plants

Reference Books

Harvey, A., Brown, A. and Hettiarachi, P., “Micro Hydro Design Manual”,
Intermediate Technology,
Fritz, J.J., “Small and Mini Hydro Power Systems: Resource Assessment and Project
Feasibility”, McGraw Hills.
Gulliver, J.S. and Arndt, E.A., “Handbook of Hydro Electric Engineering”, McGraw Hills.
Kausal, M.L. and Chauhan, G., “Planning and Design of Small Hydroelectric
Projects”, (Publication No. 305), Central Board of Irrigation and Power.
“Civil Engineering Guidelines for Hydroelectric Projects”, (Vol. 4-Small Hydro), ASCE.
Nigam, P.S., “Handbook of Hydroelectric Engineering”, Nem Chand and Bros. “Guidelines to Develop
Small Hydropower Plants”, ESHA.

Design of SHP Structures

Hydraulics and structural designs of civil works, national and international standards and
codes of practice, diversion works and intake structures, site selection, innovative designs.
Power house layouts , channel (lined and unlined), under drainage works, tunnels and tail race
Sediment properties and transport, desilting devices, silt disposal Cross drainage works
Balancing reservoir, spillway and forebay tank Penstock, anchor block and saddle, surge tank
Power house buildings, material handling, machine foundation

Reference Books

  1. Mosonyi, E., “Water Power Development”, Vol. I and II, Nem Chand and Brothers.
  2. Brown, G., “Hydro-electric Engineering Practice”, Vol. I, II & III, CBS Publication.
  3. “Civil Engineering Guidelines for Hydroelectric Projects”, Vol. II and IV, American
    Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).
  4. Nigam, P.S., “Hand book of Hydroelectric Engineering”, Nem Chand and Brothers.
  5. Varshney, R.S., “Hydropower Structures”, Nem Chand and Brothers.
  6. National and International Standards.

Renewable Energy resources development project

Introduction to energy sources, reserves and estimates, global energy scenario, renewable energy vis-a-vis environment implications, global warming and climate change.
Solar energy and its application, availability of solar radiation energy, collection and solar
thermal storage, photovoltaic and thermal power generation.
Wind energy and its application, types of wind mills and their characteristics, elementary design principles.
Biomass and its sources, energy plantation, production of fuel wood.
Bio-conversion processes, bio-gas, bio-diesel and ethanol production and utilization.
Thermo-chemical processes, biomass gasification, process, types of reactors, utilization of
producer gas for thermal and electricity generation.
New energy technology, ocean and geothermal energy, hydrogen energy, alternate fuels for
surface transportation

Reference books

  1. Duffie, J.A. and Beckman, W.A., “Solar Engineering of Thermal Process”, 3″ Edition, John
  2. Charles, Y. W.-B. and Essel, B. H., “Biomass Conversion and Technology”, John
  3. Lysen, E.H.A., “Introduction to Wind Energy”, Franklin Institute Press.
  4. Clare, R., “Tidal Power: Trends and Development”, Thomas Telford.
  5. “World Energy Outlook 2009”, International Energy Agency Publication.
  6. Ledjeff, K. et al., “Hydrogen: A Clean Permanent Source of Future
    Energy”, Pergamon Press.
  7. Kemp, W.H., “The Renewable Energy Handbook: A Guide to Rural Energy
    Independence, Off-Grid and Sustainable Energy”, Aztext Press.

Hydro Electric Equipment

  1. Types, characteristics and testing of ac generators
  2. Sizing and specification of single and three phase generators
  3. Power factor and its correction methodologies, excitation systems
  4. Electro-mechanical and digital governor, electronic load controller
  5. Types of relays, contactors and control schemes for SHP stations
  6. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), integrated computer control
    system for SHP station
  7. Switchyard equipments, power and instrument transformers, circuit breakers, bus-bar
  8. Protection schemes for generator, transformer and bus-bar, design of circuit diagram
    for auxiliary and grounding systems

Reference Books

  1. Reimert, D., “Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems”, Taylor and Francis.
  2. Clemen, D.M., “Hydro Plant Electrical Systems”, HCI Publication.
  3. Kundur, P., “Power System Stability and Control”, McGraw Hill Inc.
  4. Harker, K., “Power System Commissioning and Maintenance Practice”, The
    Institution of Electrical Engineers.
  5. “Manual on Layout of Substations”, Central Board of Irrigation and Power.
  6. “Manual on Sub-station, Design of Earthing-Mat for High-Voltage Substation”,
    Central Board of Irrigation and Power.

Hydro Mechanical Equipment

Classification and working principles of hydro turbines, different components of impulse
and reaction turbines
Design concepts of hydro turbines, pump-as-turbine and other non conventional hydro turbines
Characteristics of hydro turbines, geometric similarity, main characteristic and
operating characteristic curves, hill curves
Governing of hydro turbines, mechanical and electro-mechanical governors, electronic load
controller, mechanical drives, gear box, pulleys
Selection of hydro turbines based on specific speed and their optimal selection Classification,
components and selection of gates and valves
Model testing of hydro turbines, performance testing of turbines at site
Causes and impact of cavitation, silt erosion and their combined effect on operation of hydro
Erection, commissioning, operation and maintenance of turbines

Reference Books

  1. Mosonyi, E., “Water Power Development”, Vol. I and II, Nem Chand and Brothers.
  2. Nigam, P.S., “Handbook of Hydroelectric Engineering”, Nem Chand and Brothers.
  3. Lal, J., “Hydraulic Mechines”, 3’ᔈ edition (reprint), Metropolitan Book Co. Private
  4. National and International Standards.
  5. Brown, G., “Hydro-electric Engineering Practice”, Vol. II, CBS Publication

Environmental Planning & Management

Basic ecological principles, concept and components of ecosystem, energy flow, nutrient cycling, cybernetics, ecological regulation, ecological diversity
Interaction of various components of environment, ecological disorders
Environmental impact assessment (EIA) of water resources projects with emphasis on
renewable energy projects e.g. SHP, biomass, solar energy
Conservation of resources, environmental policies, laws and acts
Significance of EIA of renewable energy projects, case studies of large and small hydro projects
Environmental compatible growth.

Reference Books

  1. Naidu, B.S.K., “Planning and Management of Hydropower Resources in India”, CBIP.
  2. Sengupta, B. and Guha, H., “Construction Management and Planning”, Tata McGraw- Hill
    Publishing Company Ltd.
  3. Chaturvedi, M.C., Jain, S.K. and Singh, V.P., “Water Resource System Planning and
    Management”, Tata Mcgraw Hill.
  4. Saxena, K.D., “Environmental Planning, Policies and Programmes in India”, Sipra
  5. Jain, S.K., “Water Resource System Planning and Management”, Elsevier publication.
  6. Khan, M.A., “Environment Biodiversity and Conservation”, APH publication.

Wind Energy Technology

Wind energy scenario in India, properties of wind, wind velocity and wind rose diagram,
estimation of power in wind.
Types of wind turbines, characteristics, construction of wind mills.
Aerodynamic considerations of wind mill design, wind stream profile, rotor blade profile
and cross section.
Drive system-gears, wind electric generators, regulating and control systems for wind mills.
Performance evaluation and recent technologies of wind energy conversion system Wind energy potential estimation and site selection; wind farms, cost estimation of the energy from wind energy conversion system.

Reference Books

  1. Pillai, G.M., “Wind Power Development in India”, Part-II, Shailesh Art Print.
  2. Sorensen, B., “Renewable Energy”, Academic Press.
  3. Burton, T. et a1, “Wind Energy Handbook”, John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
  4. Lysen, E.H.A., “Introduction to Wind Energy”, Franklin Institute Press.
  5. Boyle, G., “Renewable Energy Power for a Sustainable Future”, Oxford University
  6. Bansal, N.K., Kleemann, M. and Heliss, M., “Renewable Energy Sources and
    Conversion Technology”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.

Integrated management of Water bodies

  1. Hydrology, types, hydrological processes and water balance of water bodies,
    estimation of present and projected demands, human impacts, inventory of human activities in a basinland use and impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality, domestic water demand,
    wastewater generation, collection and treatment and disposal, urban storm water, industrial
    waste generaion, open defication, municipal solid wastes collection, transport and disposal,
    impacts of dumping in drains or sewer lines
  2. Point and non point sources, types of water pollution, water quality criteria and
    standards, designated best uses of water; equilibrium, acid base, oxidation reduction,
    precipitation and complex reactions
  3. Physical methods (turbidimetry, nephlometry, optical methods of
    measurement, potentiometry, chromatography, spectroscopy); measurement of sulphates, Na, DO, BOD, TOC, all forms of N, fluorides exposure to analytical techniques of HC like ICP, AAS, GC, biological
    components (periphyton, phytoplankton, zoobenthos, nekton, biodiversity indices, trophic status,
    P/R ratio microbiological MPN, coliform and streptococcus, bioindicators, biomonitoring of
    water bodies), sampling, schedule and water quality monitoring program of national rivers and
    lakes; sampling protocol of NRCD, standards, water quality indices, strategy for water
    quality management, case histories of ongoing projects.
  4. Principles of environmental management, EIA, water and sustainable
    development, 7 involvement of stakeholders, water governance, environmental education, public participation; Legal, constitutional provisions, national policies, legal and
    institutional arrangement for the management of water quality and quantity.
  5. Application of remote sensing and GIS for water management, modeling (forecasting
    and growth modeling), eco—mapping, inter river basin transfer, cost—benefit
    analysis, environmental taxes, economics of natural resources;

Reference Books

  1. Lenton, R. and Muller, M. and Carriger, S., “Integrated Water Resources Management
    in Practice”, Earthscan Publishers.
  2. Mollinga, P.P., Dixit, A. and Athukorala, K., “Integrated Water Resources
    Management Global Theory Emerging Practice and Local Needs”, SAGE publication.
    3 Timmerman, J. G., Pahl-Wostl, C. and Moltgen, J., “The Adaptiveness of
    IWRM, Analysing European IWRM Research”, IWA Publisher.
  3. Liu, D. H. and Liptak, B.G., “Environmental Engineers Handbook”, 2ⁿᔈ edition CRC Press.
  4. “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water”, 21Ëą’ edition, American
    Public Health Association.
  5. Clair, S., McCarty, P.L. and Parkin, G.F., “Chemistry for Environmental
    Engineering”, McGraw Hill Publication.
  6. Kulkarni, V. and Ramachandra, T.V., “Environment Management”, TERI Press.

Aquatic Ecology

Definition, relevance, principles and scope of ecology, sub-divisions, Structure and functions,
biotic and abiotic components and productivity of ecosystem and energy flow, materials
cycling, energetics, limiting factors, development and evolution; Trophic levels, food
chain and food webs, ecological pyramids, competition, population ecology.
Lakes, wetlands and rivers, reservoirs and springs, structure and functions, usefulness, natural
and manmade ecosystems; concept, importance and conservation of aquatic biodiversity role of invasive species and its importance
System analysis, ecosystem models, Stressed ecosystems, homeostasis,
ecological succession, ecosystem resilience
Pollution of lakes and rivers, causes, impacts and control of eutrophication; principles
and application of restoration methods, ecotechnologies
National/international perspectives, policies, Ramsar convention, NLCP, NRCD, case studies of Dal lake, Nainital lake, Chilka, Loktak and Asan wetlands, Tehri dam reservoir, river
Ganges and Yamuna.
Elementary biochemistry, salient features of biomolecules, enzymes and other tools of
biotechnology, discovery and diversity, prokaryotic cell, microbial energetics,
biosynthesis and nutrition, autotrophic way of life, growth, macromolecular synthesis.
Microorganism in environment, microbiology of water, bacteria and viruses, bacteriophages,
animal and plant viruses, structure, replication and quantification, structure and diversity
of algae, protozoa and rotifers.

Reference Books

  1. Odum, E.P., Barrick, M., and Barrett, G.W., “Fundamentals of Ecology”, 3Êłá”ˆ edition,
    W.D. Saunders.
  2. Wetzel, R.G., “Limnology: Lakes and Rivers Ecosystems”, 3“ edition, W.D. Saunders.
  3. Christer, B. and Lars, A.H., “The Biology of Lakes and Ponds”, Oxford University Press.
  4. Cooke, G.D. et a1, “Restoration and Management of Lakes and Reservoirs”, 3’ᔈ edition,
    Taylor and Francis publication.
  5. Roberts, M.B.V. and Ingram N.R., “Biology”, Nelson Science Publishers.
  6. Smith, J.E., “Biotechnology”, 5″ edition, South Asian Press.

Instrumentation for Small power

Industrial instrumentation, transducers and their applications.
Instrumentation for power system, analog and digital instruments, principles of
measurement of voltage, current and power.
Electronic voltmeters for non-sinusoidal voltages, dc voltmeter, mechanical and electrical
tachometer, altimeter.
Current transformers and potential transformers, AC/DC current probs.
Digital instrumentation, technology of regulators, sensors and actuators, recorders, signal
processing circuits, data acquisition system.
Types of a.c. bridges, equation for bridge balance, measurement of self inductance, capacitance,
mutual inductance and frequency.
Case study of the instrumentation scheme used in small hydro power development.

Reference Books

  1. Doebelin, E. 0., “Measurement Systems Application and Design”, 5″ edition, Tata
  1. Patranabis, D., “Principles of Industrial Instrumentation”, 2 Hill Publishing Company.
    ndedition, Tata McGraw-
  1. Oliver, B., “Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation”, 1Ëąá”— edition, Tata McGraw- Hill
    Publishing Company.
  2. Bouwens A., “Digital Instrumentation”, 1Ëąá”— edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
  3. Beckwith, T.G., Marangoni, R.D. and Lienhard, J.H., “Mechanical Measurements”, 6á”—Ê° edition,
    Prentice Hall Publishers.
  4. Sawhney, A.K., “A course in Electrical and Electronic Measurement
    and Instrumentation”, liá”— edition, Dhanpat Rai and Sons Publishers.

Rural Electrical Energy System Planning & Design

Electrical load survey and forecasting, rural load management. Route survey and profiling of
transmission and distribution lines.
Mechanical design of low-tension distribution lines, selection of poles/supports etc. Electrical
design of low-tension distribution lines: selection of conductors and insulators etc.
Planning, selection and design of substations for rural electrical system.
Load flow methods for transmission and distribution system; fault analysis: different types of
faults and their calculation procedures
Co-ordination between power and tele-communication lines Maintenance of transmission and
distribution lines

Reference Books

  1. Kamaraju, V., “Electric Power Distribution System”, Tata McGraw Hill Education
    Private Limited.
  2. Grainger, J.J. and Stevenson, W.D., “Power System Analysis”, Tata McGraw Hill
    Publishing Company Limited.
  3. Jangwala, N.K., “Modern Trends and Practices in Power Subtransmission and
    Distribution Systems”, Vol.-I and II, CBIP Publication.
  4. Widmer, P. and Arter, A., “Village Electrification”, MHPG, SKAT Publication.
  5. Pabla A.S., “Electric Power Distribution”, 5á”—Ê° edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing
  6. Harker, K., “Power System Commissioning and Maintenance Practice”, The
    Institution of Electrical Engineers.
  7. Raina, K.B. and Bhattacharya, S.K., “Electrical Design Estimating and Costing”, New Age
    International Publisher Limited.

Remote Sensing & GIS Planning for SHP Planning

Remote sensing: Introduction, Satellite platforms and sensors, data acquisition, Indian
satellite system.
Satellite image: format, resolution, multispectral images, Image processing software, Geo-
referencing, pre-processing and enhancement. Information extraction: supervised and
unsupervised classification
Geographical Information System: introduction, components, Coordinate system,
Projection system.
Data sources and data collection for small hydro projects: Field survey, topographic maps,
satellite images, GPS, Digitization and layers creation.
Data types — Spatial, non-spatial, Vector and Raster data, Topological relationship.
Data base development for SHP: Database structure, editing, data retrieval and query.
Managing data errors: Rubber sheeting, Edge matching, Removal of sliver polygon.
Digital elevation model: characteristics, DEM generation, parameters extraction from DEM.
SHP data analyses—Catchments delineation – Overlay analyses, Buffering, Neighborhood
operation, and distance and area measurement. Network based analysis.
Runoff modeling, suitable site selection for small hydro power projects. GIS based Case study for development of small hydro power projects.

Reference Books

  1. Lillesand, T.M. and Kiefer, R.W., “Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation”, 5á”—
    edition, John Willey and Sons Pte. Ltd.
  2. Panda, B.C., “Remote Sensing Principles and Applications”, Viva Books Private
  3. Lo, C.P. and Yeung, A. K.W., “Concepts and Techniques of Geographic Information Systems”,
    Prentice Hall Inc.
  4. Chang, K.T., “Introduction to Geographic Information Systems”, Tata Mc Graw-Hill.
  5. Burrough, P.A., “Principles of GIS for Land Resources Assessment”, Oxford
    University Press.

Biomass production & utilization

Energy crisis, rural and urban energy loads, biomass as a source of energy, energy
plantation, forest and agro residues, aquatic biomass, animal waste.
Classification, shape, size, ash content and volatile matter in biomass.
Biomass characteristics, procedures, proximate and ultimate analysis, ash deformation and
fusion characteristics, calorific value, bulk density, devolatilisation
Biomass production through energy plantation, agroforestry, short rotation intensive
culture, biomass harvesting, handling and pre-conversion processes.
Physical, biological and thermo-chemical conversion processes, combustion, pyrolysis,
gasification, bio-diesel, biogas production, biogas plants, briquetting/size reduction.
Synthetic fuel production, bagasse based co-generation for power, utilization of biomass for
the generation of solid, liquid/gaseous fuels for meeting heat and power needs Environmental
aspects of biomass production and utilisation and waste minimization system.

Reference Books

  1. Richard, B.D.O., “Fats and Oils Formulating and Processing for Application”, 3Êł
    edition, CRC Press.
  2. Donald, K., “Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels and Chemicals”, Academic press.
  3. Venkat, R.P. and Srinivas, S.N., “Biomass Energy Systems”, Proceeding of
    International Conference, Feb. 26-27, 1996, TERI Press.
  4. Maheshwari, R.C., “Bioenergy for Rural Energisation”, Concept publication company
  5. Nair, Ramchandra P.K., “An Introduction to Agroforestry”, Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd.

Operation & Maintenance of Small Plants

Intake weir, desilting tank, forebay, power channel, spillways and power house building Gates,
valves, trash rack and penstock
Turbines, governors and auxiliaries Hydro-generator and excitation system
Control panels, relays, circuit breakers, transformers, batteries and charging equipments Earthing
system, switchyard and interconnecting transmission lines
Safety aspects and disaster management in small hydropower plants
Financial management for operation and maintenance of small hydropower plants

Reference Books

  1. “Maintenance and Repair Manual for Private Micro Hydropower: Plants”, developed by DCS
    Technology Development, ICIMOD publication.
  2. “Installation and Commissioning Manual for Micro Hydro Plants”, developed by DCS
    Technology Development, ICIMOD publication.
  3. Facilities, Instructions, Standards and Techniques (FIST) Manuals, Vol. I-VI, USBR.
  4. Fischer, G. et a1, “Governor product information”, SKAT.
  5. Gulliver, J.S. and Arndt, E.A., “Handbook of Hydro Electric Engineering”, McGraw
  6. Harker, K., “Power System Commissioning and Maintenance Practice”, The
    Institution of Electrical Engineers

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